Sperm-freezing extenders supplemented with sugar or a combination of different sugars are widely used for the cryopreservation of nonhuman primate spermatozoa. Understanding which sugar or combination of sugars offers the highest level of cryoprotection would be beneficial for the development of sperm-freezing extenders. In the present study we aimed to investigate the effect of glucose, lactose, and raffinose separately or in combination on the cryosurvival of rhesus monkey spermatozoa. Toward that end, we prepared eight extenders by adding various types of sugars to a basic medium (BM): G-BM (0.3 M glucose), L-BM (0.3 M lactose), R-BM (0.3 M raffinose), LG-BM (0.15 M lactose+0.15 M glucose), RG-BM (0.15 M raffinose+0.15 M glucose), LR-BM (0.15 M lactose+0.15 M raffinose), and LRG-BM (0.1 M lactose+0.1 M raffinsoe+0.1 M glucose). A saline control (0.157 M sodium chloride) was also used. The results showed no significant difference in post-thaw motility when spermatozoa were frozen with G-BM, L-BM, LG-BM, RG-BM, and LRG-BM, but the post-thaw motility was significantly lower when it was frozen with R-BM, LR-BM, and the saline control. The highest plasma membrane integrity was achieved when spermatozoa were frozen with G-BM, L-BM, LG-BM, RG-BM, and LRG-BM, and the highest acrosome integrity was achieved with G-BM, L-BM, LG-BM, RG-BM, LRG-BM, and the saline control. The results indicate that the various sugars offered different protective effects. For the cryopreservation of rhesus monkey spermatozoa, glucose (monosaccharide) and lactose (disaccharide) were shown to be more suitable than raffinose (trisaccharide) for preserving spermatozoal motility, plasma membrane, and acrosome. Specifically, raffinose was detrimental to sperm acrosome integrity Am. J. Primatol. 68:103–108, 2006. © 2006 Wiley-Liss, Inc.