We report on the first reciprocal chromosome painting of lorisoids and humans. The chromosome painting showed a remarkable syntenic homology between Otolemur and Nycticebus. Eight derived syntenic associations of human segments are common to both Otolemur and Nycticebus, indicative of a considerable period of common evolution between the greater galago and the slow loris. Five additional Robertsonian translocations form the slow loris karyotype, while the remaining chromosomes are syntenically equivalent, although some differ in terms of centromere position and heterochromatin additions. Strikingly, the breakpoints of the human chromosomes found fragmented in these two species are apparently identical. Only fissions of homologs to human chromosomes 1 and 15 provide significant evidence of a cytogenetic link between Lemuriformes and Lorisiformes. The association of human chromosomes 7/16 in both lorisoids strongly suggests that this chromosome was present in the ancestral primate genome. Am. J. Primatol. 68:349–359, 2006. © 2006 Wiley-Liss, Inc.