The objective of the present investigation was to conduct a comparative macroscopic study of the arterial vascularization of the mandible and maxilla of neotropical primates of the genera Cebus, Alouatta, Callithrix, and Leontopithecus. After vinyl was injected into the arterial system of the head of each specimen, the pieces were macerated and corroded. The level of the bifurcation of the common carotid artery into the internal and external carotids varied between the first and third cervical vertebrae. The external carotid artery accounts for most of the vascularization of the facial structures. The actual vessels responsible for the supply of this region are the sublingual, facial, angular, lingual, submandibular, submental, inferior and superior labial, maxillary, inferior alveolar, infraorbital, superior posterior alveolar, palatine major, and sphenopalatine arteries. We conclude that although the arterial vascular pattern was similar in all the genera studied, and resembles the human pattern, there are notable variations in the vasculature of the mandible and maxilla among these four neotropical genera. Am. J. Primatol. 68:777–788, 2006. © 2006 Wiley-Liss, Inc.