Ranging patterns and habitat use of Sulawesi Tonkean macaques (Macaca tonkeana) in a human-modified habitat



The goal of this study was to investigate the ecological flexibility of Tonkean macaques (Macaca tonkeana) by examining how they respond to human-induced habitat alteration. To do so, I observed movement patterns, forest strata use, microhabitat use, and home range use in two groups that occupied habitats with different levels of human alteration and habitat quality in Lore Lindu National Park, Sulawesi, Indonesia. The group occupying the heavily altered habitat (Anca) spent a significantly greater proportion of time traveling on the ground than the group in minimally altered habitat (CH), and significantly more time than expected in microhabitats within their range that were characterized by greater alteration (e.g., agroforestry areas). There was no significant difference between the two groups in daily path length, despite differences in group size. The Anca group exhibited a greater home range area per individual than the CH group, and utilized a more limited area within their home range with greater intensity, relative to the CH group. Tonkean macaques therefore show considerable flexibility in response to anthropogenic disturbance by adjusting their use of forest strata to facilitate travel and increase foraging opportunities and by intensively using particular areas within their home range where known resources are present and predictably available. Am. J. Primatol. 70:670–679, 2008. © 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc.