• enrichment;
  • captivity;
  • seasonality;
  • age–sex differences;
  • activity budget;
  • Macaca fuscata;
  • vegetated enclosure


Individuals adapt to changes in their environment, such as food availability and temperature, by adjusting the amount of time spent in different behavioral activities. These adjustments in behavior should vary across age–sex class according to specific physiological and social needs. We studied the activity budgets of three social Japanese macaque groups inhabiting either vegetated or nonvegetated enclosures in order to compare the effects of access with vegetation, as both food and substrate on resting, feeding, grooming and moving activities over a 12-month period. Daily access to natural foods for monkeys in the vegetated enclosure seems to be largely responsible for the differences in daily time budgets of these three groups. Resting time in all three groups was longer than the time devoted to other activities. Resting and moving time in the two nonvegetated enclosures was significantly longer than in the vegetated enclosure. In contrast, feeding and grooming time was significantly longer in the vegetated enclosure. Seasonal variation in time spent feeding, resting and grooming was significantly effected by enclosure type. In all three enclosures, immatures, particularly females, spent more time feeding and moving, whereas adults spent more time resting. Significant monthly variation in time spent by age–sex class was noted only for feeding and resting. Interestingly, in the vegetated enclosure, time spent feeding on natural vegetation was equal to the amount of time spent feeding on provisioned food. This suggests that factors other than energetic and nutritional needs may be important determinants of the activity budget of the species. These results have important implications for the enrichment of captive primates and our understanding of the maintenance of activity patterns by primates in the wild. Am. J. Primatol. 70:1133–1144, 2008. © 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc.