• reconciliation;
  • third-party affiliation;
  • relationship quality;
  • post-conflict anxiety;
  • Papio hamadryas hamadryas


In social groups, agonistic conflicts can have different negative consequences. Several post-conflict interactions have been suggested as post-conflict management behaviors to mitigate those negative effects. In this study, we investigated the function of two post-conflict behaviors—reconciliation and aggressor-initiated third-party affiliation—on the aggressor's levels of post-conflict anxiety and aggression in a large colony of hamadryas baboons. We also examined variation in the aggressor's levels of post-conflict anxiety as a function of relationship quality between the opponents as predicted by the Integrated Hypothesis. We found that after conflicts hamadryas baboon aggressors showed increased rates of anxiety-related behaviors and that they were also more likely to be involved in renewed aggressive interactions. Although both reconciliation and aggressor-initiated third-party affiliation reduced the probability of receiving post-conflict aggression, only reconciliation reduced the rates of anxiety-related behaviors, suggesting that the aggressors' post-conflict anxiety might be owing mainly to the damage that the conflict causes to their relationship with the victim. Furthermore, aggressor's rates of post-conflict anxiety were higher after conflicts with individuals with whom they had a high-quality relationship, supporting the idea that levels of post-conflict anxiety mediate the occurrence of reconciliation depending on the quality of the relationship with former opponent as predicted by the Integrated Hypothesis. Am. J. Primatol. 71:60–69, 2009. © 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc.