To date, ultrasonography of monkey ovaries is rare and typically of low resolution. The objectives of this study were to use state-of-the-art, high-resolution, transabdominal ultrasonography with real-time Doppler capabilities to: (1) determine whether one can reliably detect in real time the large dominant follicle, the corpus luteum (CL), and small (<2 mm) antral follicles on the ovaries of rhesus monkeys during the natural menstrual cycle; and (2) predict the follicular response of rhesus ovaries to controlled ovarian stimulation (COS) protocols. Rhesus monkeys were selected for transabdominal ultrasonography using a GE Voluson 730 Expert Doppler System at discrete stages of the menstrual cycle. Subsequently, serial ultrasound scanning was employed to observe growth of antral follicles and the CL. Finally, females were scanned to assess follicular growth during COS. The dominant structure and small antral follicles (<2 mm) were reliably visualized in real time. The follicle destined to ovulate could be identified by size differential by day 3 of the follicular phase. The number of small antral follicles present before onset of COS protocol correlated positively with the number of metaphase II-stage oocytes collected after treatment. The results of this study demonstrate that the population dynamics of antral follicle pools can be noninvasively evaluated in monkeys during natural and pharmacologic ovarian cycles. Am. J. Primatol. 71:384–392, 2009. © 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc.