The first two authors contributed equally to this work. Additional Supporting Information may be found in the online version of this article. Contract grant sponsor: Chinese Academy of Sciences, Contract grant numbers: KSCX1-05-02, KSCX2-YW-R-47; Contract grant sponsor: Major State Basic Development Program, Contract grant number: 2006CB701505 and 2007CB947701; Contract grant sponsor: National S&T Major Project, Contract grant number: 2009ZX09501-028; Contract grant sponsor: R&D Infrastructure and Facility Development Program of Yunnan Province, Contract grant number: 2006PT08-2; Contract grant sponsor: Yunnan Province Union Supported National Technology Program, Contract grant number: 2008GA003.
The Available Time Window for Embryo Transfer in the Rhesus Monkey (Macaca mulatta)
Article first published online: 16 JAN 2012
© 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
American Journal of Primatology
Volume 74, Issue 2, pages 165–173, February 2012
How to Cite
CHEN, Y., NIU, Y., YANG, S., HE, X., JI, S., SI, W., TANG, X., XIE, Y., WANG, H., LU, Y., ZHOU, Q. and JI, W. (2012), The Available Time Window for Embryo Transfer in the Rhesus Monkey (Macaca mulatta). Am. J. Primatol., 74: 165–173. doi: 10.1002/ajp.21017
- Issue published online: 16 JAN 2012
- Article first published online: 16 JAN 2012
- Manuscript Accepted: 3 OCT 2011
- Manuscript Revised: 28 SEP 2011
- Manuscript Received: 7 AUG 2011
- Chinese Academy of Sciences. Grant Numbers: KSCX1-05-02, KSCX2-YW-R-47
- Major State Basic Development Program. Grant Numbers: 2006CB701505, 2007CB947701
- National S&T Major Project. Grant Number: 2009ZX09501-028
- R&D Infrastructure and Facility Development Program of Yunnan Province. Grant Number: 2006PT08-2
- Yunnan Province Union Supported National Technology Program. Grant Number: 2008GA003
- time window for embryo transfer;
- early luteal phase;
- late follicular phase;
- rhesus monkey
Much effort has been focused on improving assisted reproductive technology procedures in humans and nonhuman primates (NHPs). However, the pregnancy rate after embryo transfer (ET) has not been satisfactory, indicating that some barriers still need to be overcome in this important procedure. One of the key factors is embryo–uterine synchronicity, which is little known in NHPs. The objective of this study was to investigate the available ET time window in rhesus monkey (Macaca mulatta). Eighty-two adult female rhesus monkeys were superovulated with recombinant human FSH. Ovarian phases were identified according to estrogen (E2) and progesterone (P4) levels as well as ovarian examination by ultrasonography and laparoscopy. A total of 259 embryos were transferred by the laparoscopic approach into the oviducts of 63 adult female monkeys. Ovarian phases were divided into late follicular and early luteal phases. Similar pregnancy rates (30–36.4%) were obtained from recipients receiving ET either in their late follicular or early luteal phases, regardless of embryo developmental stages. This study indicates that the available time window for ET in rhesus monkeys is from the late follicular to early luteal phases.