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The Available Time Window for Embryo Transfer in the Rhesus Monkey (Macaca mulatta)

Authors

  • YONGCHANG CHEN,

    1. Kunming Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Kunming, China
    2. Yunnan Key Laboratory of Animal Reproductive Biology, Kunming, China
    3. Kunming Biomed International & National Engineering Research Center of Biomedicine and Animal Science, Kunming, China
    4. Graduate School, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China
    5. Biotechnology Research Center, Faculty of Life Science and Technology, Kunming University of Science and Technology, Kunming, China
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  • YUYU NIU,

    1. Kunming Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Kunming, China
    2. Yunnan Key Laboratory of Animal Reproductive Biology, Kunming, China
    3. Kunming Biomed International & National Engineering Research Center of Biomedicine and Animal Science, Kunming, China
    4. Biotechnology Research Center, Faculty of Life Science and Technology, Kunming University of Science and Technology, Kunming, China
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  • SHIHUA YANG,

    1. Kunming Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Kunming, China
    2. Yunnan Key Laboratory of Animal Reproductive Biology, Kunming, China
    3. State Key Laboratory of Reproductive Biology, Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China
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  • XIECHAO HE,

    1. Kunming Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Kunming, China
    2. Yunnan Key Laboratory of Animal Reproductive Biology, Kunming, China
    3. Kunming Biomed International & National Engineering Research Center of Biomedicine and Animal Science, Kunming, China
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  • SHAOHUI JI,

    1. Kunming Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Kunming, China
    2. Yunnan Key Laboratory of Animal Reproductive Biology, Kunming, China
    3. Kunming Biomed International & National Engineering Research Center of Biomedicine and Animal Science, Kunming, China
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  • WEI SI,

    1. Kunming Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Kunming, China
    2. Yunnan Key Laboratory of Animal Reproductive Biology, Kunming, China
    3. Kunming Biomed International & National Engineering Research Center of Biomedicine and Animal Science, Kunming, China
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  • XIANGHUI TANG,

    1. Kunming Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Kunming, China
    2. Yunnan Key Laboratory of Animal Reproductive Biology, Kunming, China
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  • YUNHUA XIE,

    1. Kunming Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Kunming, China
    2. Yunnan Key Laboratory of Animal Reproductive Biology, Kunming, China
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  • HONG WANG,

    1. Kunming Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Kunming, China
    2. Yunnan Key Laboratory of Animal Reproductive Biology, Kunming, China
    3. Kunming Biomed International & National Engineering Research Center of Biomedicine and Animal Science, Kunming, China
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  • YONGQING LU,

    1. Kunming Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Kunming, China
    2. Yunnan Key Laboratory of Animal Reproductive Biology, Kunming, China
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  • QI ZHOU,

    1. State Key Laboratory of Reproductive Biology, Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China
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  • WEIZHI JI

    Corresponding author
    1. Yunnan Key Laboratory of Animal Reproductive Biology, Kunming, China
    2. Kunming Biomed International & National Engineering Research Center of Biomedicine and Animal Science, Kunming, China
    • Kunming Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Kunming, China
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  • The first two authors contributed equally to this work. Additional Supporting Information may be found in the online version of this article. Contract grant sponsor: Chinese Academy of Sciences, Contract grant numbers: KSCX1-05-02, KSCX2-YW-R-47; Contract grant sponsor: Major State Basic Development Program, Contract grant number: 2006CB701505 and 2007CB947701; Contract grant sponsor: National S&T Major Project, Contract grant number: 2009ZX09501-028; Contract grant sponsor: R&D Infrastructure and Facility Development Program of Yunnan Province, Contract grant number: 2006PT08-2; Contract grant sponsor: Yunnan Province Union Supported National Technology Program, Contract grant number: 2008GA003.

Correspondence to: Weizhi Ji, Kunming Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Kunming 650223, China.

Abstract

Much effort has been focused on improving assisted reproductive technology procedures in humans and nonhuman primates (NHPs). However, the pregnancy rate after embryo transfer (ET) has not been satisfactory, indicating that some barriers still need to be overcome in this important procedure. One of the key factors is embryo–uterine synchronicity, which is little known in NHPs. The objective of this study was to investigate the available ET time window in rhesus monkey (Macaca mulatta). Eighty-two adult female rhesus monkeys were superovulated with recombinant human FSH. Ovarian phases were identified according to estrogen (E2) and progesterone (P4) levels as well as ovarian examination by ultrasonography and laparoscopy. A total of 259 embryos were transferred by the laparoscopic approach into the oviducts of 63 adult female monkeys. Ovarian phases were divided into late follicular and early luteal phases. Similar pregnancy rates (30–36.4%) were obtained from recipients receiving ET either in their late follicular or early luteal phases, regardless of embryo developmental stages. This study indicates that the available time window for ET in rhesus monkeys is from the late follicular to early luteal phases.

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