Seroprevalence of Trypanosoma cruzi and Leishmania mexicana in Free-Ranging Howler Monkeys in Southeastern Mexico

Authors

  • MARÍA DE JESÚS ROVIROSA-HERNÁNDEZ,

    1. Instituto de Neuroetología, Universidad Veracruzana, Xalapa, Veracruz, México
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  • LILIANA CORTES-ORTÍZ,

    1. Museum of Zoology Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan
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  • FRANCISCO GARCÍA-ORDUÑA,

    1. Instituto de Neuroetología, Universidad Veracruzana, Xalapa, Veracruz, México
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  • DANIEL GUZMÁN-GÓMEZ,

    1. LADISER Inmunología y Biología Molecular, Facultad de Ciencias Químicas, Universidad Veracruzana, Orizaba, Veracruz, México
    2. Centro de Investigaciones Biomédicas, Universidad Veracruzana, Xalapa, Veracruz, México
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  • ARACELY LÓPEZ-MONTEON,

    1. LADISER Inmunología y Biología Molecular, Facultad de Ciencias Químicas, Universidad Veracruzana, Orizaba, Veracruz, México
    2. Centro de Investigaciones Biomédicas, Universidad Veracruzana, Xalapa, Veracruz, México
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  • MARIO CABA,

    1. Centro de Investigaciones Biomédicas, Universidad Veracruzana, Xalapa, Veracruz, México
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  • ANGEL RAMOS-LIGONIO

    Corresponding author
    1. LADISER Inmunología y Biología Molecular, Facultad de Ciencias Químicas, Universidad Veracruzana, Orizaba, Veracruz, México
    2. Centro de Investigaciones Biomédicas, Universidad Veracruzana, Xalapa, Veracruz, México
    • Instituto de Neuroetología, Universidad Veracruzana, Xalapa, Veracruz, México
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  • Contract grant sponsor: FOMIX-CONACyT Contract grant numbers: 2008-C02-108783; Contract grant sponsor: National Science Foundation (NSF); Contract grant number: BCS 0962807.

Correspondence to: Angel Ramos-Ligonio, LADISER, Inmunología y Biología Molecular, Facultad de Ciencias Químicas, Universidad Veracruzana, Orizaba, Veracruz, México. E-mail: angramos@uv.mx

Abstract

Natural infection of wild mammals by protozoa parasites is quite common in nature. For Neotropical Primates different infections of parasites that are etiological agent of disease in human have been identified. In particular, infections by Trypanosoma cruzi and Leishmania sp., have been reported for some New World primate species, but there are no reports of infection with these parasites in any primate species in Mexico. A serological study was conducted on two howler monkey species (Alouatta pigra and A. palliata) from the Mexican states of Campeche and Tabasco. A total of 55 serum samples (20 samples from A. pigra, 20 samples from A. palliata, and 15 samples from semifree ranging A. palliata of Los Tuxtlas, Veracruz as negative controls) were analyzed for the detection of immunoglobulin G antibodies against T. cruzi and Leishmania mexicana through enzyme linked immunosorbent assay test, indirect immunofluorescence assay and Western blot. The overall prevalence of antibodies in howler monkeys was 17.5% for T. cruzi and 30% for L. mexicana. Our results also indicate that A. pigra is more susceptible to develop leishmaniasis than A. palliata. Finally, the finding of positive serology in these primates should be given serious consideration for public health, given the potential role of these primate species as wild reservoirs for these diseases and the increasing contact of monkeys with human populations due to habitat loss and fragmentation. Am. J. Primatol. 75:161-169, 2013. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

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