Resistin protein is thought to link insulin resistance in murine models of obesity and type-2 diabetes, but the role of resistin in human studies of inflammatory metabolic disorders have generated conflicting data. Here, we describe the structure of the resistin gene using adipose tissue from non-human primates (NHPs), which have been used extensively to model a host of human diseases. Full-length cDNA from rhesus macaque resistin obtained by rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE) is comprised of 526 nucleotides covering an open-reading frame (ORF) that encodes a 108-amino-acid protein that is 92% homologous with the human counterpart but only 60% homologous with the murine counterpart. Using a modified polymerase chain reaction technique, we identified single nucleotide polymorphisms and a 78-bp deletion within resistin cDNA of nine rhesus macaques. Comparisons of the full-length cDNA sequence and an amplified 569-bp genomic DNA sequence revealed an error in published predictions arising from genomic studies about the gene's exon 3 region. Our data show, for the first time, the full-length macaque resistin cDNA sequence (GenBank: JF740676.1). These findings will illuminate future studies into the role of resistin in NHP models of inflammatory metabolic diseases. Am. J. Primatol. 76:65–71, 2014. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.