Conflicts of interest: None.
Spatial working memory in immersive virtual reality foraging: Path organization, traveling distance and search efficiency in humans (Homo sapiens)
Article first published online: 3 SEP 2013
© 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
American Journal of Primatology
Special Issue: On Primate Spatial Strategies and Cognition
Volume 76, Issue 5, pages 436–446, May 2014
How to Cite
De Lillo, C., Kirby, M. and James, F. C. (2014), Spatial working memory in immersive virtual reality foraging: Path organization, traveling distance and search efficiency in humans (Homo sapiens). Am. J. Primatol., 76: 436–446. doi: 10.1002/ajp.22195
- Issue published online: 16 APR 2014
- Article first published online: 3 SEP 2013
- Manuscript Accepted: 29 JUL 2013
- Manuscript Revised: 9 JUL 2013
- Manuscript Received: 11 APR 2013
- Capital Investment Fund
- Nuffield Foundation. Grant Number: URB/39517
- working memory;
- spatial strategies;
- virtual reality
Search and serial recall tasks were used in the present study to characterize the factors affecting the ability of humans to keep track of a set of spatial locations while traveling in an immersive virtual reality foraging environment. The first experiment required the exhaustive exploration of a set of locations following a procedure previously used with other primate and non-primate species to assess their sensitivity to the geometric arrangement of foraging sites. The second experiment assessed the dependency of search performance on search organization by requiring the participants to recall specific trajectories throughout the foraging space. In the third experiment, the distance between the foraging sites was manipulated in order to contrast the effects of organization and traveling distance on recall accuracy. The results show that humans benefit from the use of organized search patterns when attempting to monitor their travel though either a clustered “patchy” space or a matrix of locations. Their ability to recall a series of locations is dependent on whether the order in which they are explored conformed or did not conform to specific organization principles. Moreover, the relationship between search efficiency and search organization is not confounded by effects of traveling distance. These results indicate that in humans, organizational factors may play a large role in their ability to forage efficiently. The extent to which such dependency may pertain to other primates and could be accounted for by visual organization processes is discussed on the basis of previous studies focused on perceptual grouping, search, and serial recall in non-human species. Am. J. Primatol. Am. J. Primatol. 76:436–446, 2014. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.