Effect of living conditions on biochemical and hematological parameters of the cynomolgus monkey

Authors

  • Liang Xie,

    1. Department of Neurology, The First Affiliated Hospital of Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing, China
    2. Institute of Neuroscience, Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing, China
    3. Chongqing Key Laboratory of Neurobiology, Chongqing, China
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  • Qinming Zhou,

    1. Department of Neurology, The First Affiliated Hospital of Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing, China
    2. Institute of Neuroscience, Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing, China
    3. Chongqing Key Laboratory of Neurobiology, Chongqing, China
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  • Shigang Liu,

    1. Suzhou Xishan Zhongke Laboratory Animal Co., Ltd., Suzhou, China
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  • Fan Xu,

    1. Institute of Neuroscience, Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing, China
    2. Chongqing Key Laboratory of Neurobiology, Chongqing, China
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  • Carol A. Shively,

    1. Department of Pathology, Wake Forest School of Medicine, Winston-Salem, North Carolina
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  • Qingyuan Wu,

    1. Department of Neurology, The First Affiliated Hospital of Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing, China
    2. Institute of Neuroscience, Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing, China
    3. Chongqing Key Laboratory of Neurobiology, Chongqing, China
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  • Wei Gong,

    1. Institute of Neuroscience, Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing, China
    2. Chongqing Key Laboratory of Neurobiology, Chongqing, China
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  • Yongjia Ji,

    1. Department of Neurology, The First Affiliated Hospital of Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing, China
    2. Institute of Neuroscience, Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing, China
    3. Chongqing Key Laboratory of Neurobiology, Chongqing, China
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  • Liang Fang,

    1. Institute of Neuroscience, Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing, China
    2. Chongqing Key Laboratory of Neurobiology, Chongqing, China
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  • Leilei Li,

    1. Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Beijing, China
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  • Narayan D. Melgiri,

    1. Institute of Neuroscience, Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing, China
    2. Chongqing Key Laboratory of Neurobiology, Chongqing, China
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  • Peng Xie

    Corresponding author
    1. Department of Neurology, The First Affiliated Hospital of Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing, China
    2. Institute of Neuroscience, Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing, China
    3. Chongqing Key Laboratory of Neurobiology, Chongqing, China
    • Correspondence to: Peng Xie, Department of Neurology, The First Affiliated Hospital of Chongqing Medical University, No.1 Yixueyuan Road, Yuzhong District, Chongqing 400016, China. E-mail: xiepeng@cqmu.edu.cn

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  • Conflict of interest: One potential source of conflict of interest exists and requires disclosure. The Suzhou Xishan Zhongke Laboratory Animal Company, Ltd. (hereinafter “the Suzhou Company”) is a private (non-governmental) independent Chinese limited liability corporate entity with three operating subsidiaries: the Production Center for Laboratory Animals, the National Resource Center for Non-human Primates, and the Suzhou Drug Safety Evaluation & Research Center (see http://www.szxszk.com/jigou.do). One co-author, Shigang Liu, is currently employed by the Suzhou Company through its Production Center for Laboratory Animals subsidiary, but has no consulting relationship with or any ownership interest in the Suzhou Company or its subsidiaries. All other co-authors have no employment, consulting, or ownership interests in the Suzhou Company or its subsidiaries. All co-authors do not share intellectual property/patent rights, nor any joint interests in products in development or marketed products with the Suzhou Company or its subsidiaries. All co-authors declare no other competing interests related to this study.
  • Liang Xie, Qinming Zhou, Shigang Liu, and Fan Xu contributed equally to this study.

Abstract

The cynomolgus monkey (Macaca fascicularis) has been increasingly used in biomedical research. Although living conditions affect behavioral and physiological characteristics in macaques, little data is available on how living conditions influence blood-based parameters in the cynomolgus monkey. We hypothesize that there are significant differences in serum biochemical and hematological parameters in single-caged versus socially housed cynomolgus monkeys, and that age and sex influence the effect of living conditions on these parameters. Sixty single-caged and 60 socially housed cynomolgus monkeys were segregated by age group (juvenile, adult) and sex. The effects of living condition, age, sex, and the interactions between these factors on commonly reported serum biochemical and hematological parameters were analyzed by a three-way analysis of variance (ANOVA). Then, the differences between single-caged and socially housed subjects were tested in each parameter by Student's t-test. Creatinine, glucose, triglyceride, alanine aminotransferase, red blood cell volume distribution width (SD, CV), median fluorescence reticulocyte percentage, white blood cell and basophil counts, and monocyte (count, %) were lower in single-caged subjects. Blood urea nitrogen and globulin were lower in single-caged juveniles and adults, respectively. Red blood cell count, hemoglobin, hematocrit, and neutrophil (count, %) were higher, and reticulocyte and lymphocyte (counts, %) were lower, in single-caged juveniles. Mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration was higher in single-caged subjects (but more pronounced in adults). Total protein was higher in single-caged juvenile males and lower in single-caged adult females. Alkaline phosphatase was lower in single-caged juvenile females. Mean corpuscular hemoglobin was higher, and high fluorescence reticulocyte percentage was lower, in single-caged adult males. In conclusion, living conditions significantly affect several serum biochemical and hematological parameters in the cynomolgus monkey, and these effects vary by age and sex. As this macaque is commonly housed under different living conditions, these findings should aid researchers in avoiding inaccurate conclusions concerning this species. Am. J. Primatol. 76:1011–1024, 2014. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

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