Bipedality in chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes) and bonobo (Pan paniscus): Testing hypotheses on the evolution of bipedalism
Version of Record online: 9 MAY 2002
Copyright © 2002 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
American Journal of Physical Anthropology
Volume 118, Issue 2, pages 184–190, June 2002
How to Cite
Videan, E. N. and McGrew, W.C. (2002), Bipedality in chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes) and bonobo (Pan paniscus): Testing hypotheses on the evolution of bipedalism. Am. J. Phys. Anthropol., 118: 184–190. doi: 10.1002/ajpa.10058
- Issue online: 9 MAY 2002
- Version of Record online: 9 MAY 2002
- Manuscript Accepted: 19 NOV 2001
- Manuscript Received: 27 FEB 2001
- Department of Zoology, Miami University
- human evolution;
- referential model
A host of ecological, anatomical, and physiological selective pressures are hypothesized to have played a role in the evolution of hominid bipedalism. A referential model, based on the chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes) and bonobo (Pan paniscus), was used to test through experimental manipulation four hypotheses on the evolution of hominid bipedalism. The introduction of food piles (Carry hypothesis) increased locomotor bipedality in both species. Neither the introduction of branches (Display hypothesis) nor the construction of visual barriers (Vigilance hypothesis) altered bipedality in either species. Introduction of raised foraging structures (Forage hypothesis) increased postural bipedality in chimpanzees. These experimental manipulations provided support for carrying of portable objects and foraging on elevated food-items as plausible mechanisms that shaped bipedalism in hominids. Am J Phys Anthropol 118:184–190, 2002. © 2002 Wiley-Liss, Inc.