Two British Medieval skeletons are described. Paleopathological examination suggests that treponemal disease was present in each case. Radiocarbon dating indicates that one is firmly pre-Columbian, and the other of likely pre-Columbian date. The implications for our understanding of the history and geographic spread of the treponemal diseases, particularly venereal syphilis, are discussed. Am J Phys Anthropol 120:133–143, 2003. © 2003 Wiley-Liss, Inc.