At the microstructural level, bones remodel throughout life. This process is recorded in bone cortex as osteons. A more comprehensive understanding of the interaction between genetic regulation and environmental factors in osteon remodeling will increase the value of this skeletal record and enable more accurate reconstruction of individual life histories. The purpose of this study was to examine the contribution of maternal lineage to normal age and sex variation in osteon remodeling dynamics in Macaca mulatta. Femoral cross sections from 57 Cayo Santiago-derived rhesus macaques representing five matrilines were examined to evaluate the effect of genetic relatedness on osteon remodeling dynamics. Analysis of variance revealed an effect of maternal lineage on osteon area and Haversian canal area. The other variables did not differ significantly among matrilines. Analysis of covariance revealed no significant interactions among age, sex, and matriline for any of the microstructural variables. Am J Phys Anthropol 121:000–000, 2003. © 2003 Wiley-Liss, Inc.