Craniometric variation and the settlement of the Americas: Testing hypotheses by means of R-matrix and matrix correlation analyses

Authors

  • Rolando González-José,

    Corresponding author
    1. Unitat d'Antropologia, Facultat de Biologia, Universitat de Barcelona, 08027 Barcelona, Spain
    • Unitat d'Antropologia, Facultat de Biologia, Universitat de Barcelona, Avinguda Diagonal 645, 08028 Barcelona, Spain
    Search for more papers by this author
  • Silvia L. Dahinten,

    1. Centro Nacional Patagónico-Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas, 9120 Puerto Madryn, Argentina
    2. Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas, Buenos Aires, Argentina
    Search for more papers by this author
  • María A. Luis,

    1. Departamento Científico de Antropología del Museo de La Plata, Facultad de Ciencias Naturales y Museo, 1900 La Plata, Argentina
    Search for more papers by this author
  • Miquel Hernández,

    1. Unitat d'Antropologia, Facultat de Biologia, Universitat de Barcelona, 08027 Barcelona, Spain
    Search for more papers by this author
  • Hector M. Pucciarelli

    1. Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas, Buenos Aires, Argentina
    2. Departamento Científico de Antropología del Museo de La Plata, Facultad de Ciencias Naturales y Museo, 1900 La Plata, Argentina
    Search for more papers by this author

Abstract

New archaeological findings and the incorporation of new South American skull samples have raised fundamental questions for the classical theories of the Americas' settlement. The aim of this study was to estimate craniometric variability among several Asian and Native American populations in order to test goodness of fit of the data to different models of ancient population entries and dispersions into the New World. Our data set includes Howells' variables recorded on East Asian, North American, and South American natives (except for Na-Dene speakers). Five Fuego-Patagonian samples and one Paleoamerican sample were also included. A multivariate extension of the R-matrix method for quantitative traits was used to obtain Fst values, which were considered estimations of intergroup variation. Three main models for the peopling of the New World were represented in hypothetical design matrices. Matrix permutation tests were performed to quantify the fit of the observed data with 1) geographical separation of the samples and 2) three ways of settlement, which were the Three Migration Model (TMM), the Single Wave Migration model (SWM), and the Two Components Settlement Model (TCS). R-matrix results showed high levels of heterogeneity among Native Americans. Matrix permutation analyses suggested that the model involving high Amerindian heterogeneity and two different morphological patterns or components (derived “Mongoloid” vs. generalized “non-Mongoloid”) explains better the variation observed, even when the effects of geographical separation are removed. Whether these patterns arose as a result of two separate migration events or by local evolution from Paleoamericans to Amerindians remains unresolved. Am J Phys Anthropol 116:154–165, 2001. © 2001 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

Ancillary