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Abstract

The howler monkey possesses unique anatomical adaptations associated with its arboreal habit. The behavioral elements are described by locomotor pattern, substrate, timing and rhythm of movement. The most significant motor adaptations are correlated clearly and directly with musculoskeletal features of the lower limb. The orientation of the joints within the limb, the shape of the joint surfaces, their bony environments, and the important planes of muscular control are the foundations for the observable locomotor behaviors.