SEARCH

SEARCH BY CITATION

Literature Cited

  • Alexander RM (1984) Stride length and speed for adults, children and fossil hominids. Am. J. Phys. Anthropol. 63: 2328.
  • Anonymous (cited as Kennedy G, by White, 1985) (1979a) Difficulties in the definition of new hominid species. Nature 278: 400401.
  • Anonymous (1979b) Problems in hominid taxonomy. Nature 281: 258.
  • Arambourg C, and Coppens Y (1967) Sur le decouverté, dans le Pléistocène inférieur de la vallée de l'Omo (Ethiopie) d'une mandibule d'Australopithecien. C.R. Acad. Sci. 265-D: 589590.
  • Aronson JL, and Taieb M (1981) Geology and paleogeography of the Hadar hominid site, Ethiopia. In GRapp and CFVondra (eds.): Hominid Sites: Their Geologic Settings. AAAS Selected Symposia 63. Boulder, CO: Westview, pp. 165195.
  • Aronson JL, Schmitt TJ, Walter RC, Taieb M, Tiercelin JJ, Johanson DC, Naeser CW, and Nairn AEM (1977) New geochronological and palaeomagnetic data for the hominid-bearing Hadar Formation of Ethiopia. Nature 267: 323327.
  • Aronson JL, Walter RC, and Taieb M (1983) Correlation of Tulu Bor Tuff at Koobi Fora with the Sidi Hakoma Tuff at Hadar. Nature 306: 209210.
  • Asfaw B (1987) The Belohdelie frontal: New evidence of early hominid cranial morphology from the Afar of Ethiopia. J. Hum. Evol. 16: 611624.
  • Blumenberg B, and Lloyd AT (1983) Australopithecus and the origin of the genus Homo: Aspects of biometry and systematics with accompanying catalog of tooth metric data. Biosystems 16: 127167.
  • Boaz NT (1979) Hominid evolution in eastern Africa during the Pliocene and early Pleistocene. Annu. Rev. Anthropol. 8: 7185.
  • Boaz NT (1983) Morphological trends and phylogenetic relationships from middle Miocene hominoids to late Pliocene hominids. In RLCiochon and RSCorruccini (eds.): New Interpretations of Ape and Human Ancestry. New York: Plenum, pp. 705720.
  • Boaz NT (1985) Early hominid paleoecology in the Omo basin, Ethiopia. In Fondation Singer-Polignac (ed.): L'Environement des Hominidés au Plio-Pléistocène. Paris: Masson, pp. 279308.
  • Boaz NT, and Burckle LH (1984) Palaeoclimatic framework for African hominid evolution. In JCVogel (ed.): Late Cainozoic Palaeoclimates of the Southern Hemisphere. Rotterdam: Balkema, pp. 483490.
  • Boaz NT, Howell FC, and McCrossin ML (1982) Faunal age of the Usno, Shungura B and Hadar Formations. Nature 300: 633635.
  • Bonnefille R, and Riollet G (1987) Palynological spectra from the Upper Laetolil Beds. In MDLeakey and JHarris (eds.): Laetoli: A Pliocene Site in Northern Tanzania. Oxford: Clarendon, pp. 5261.
  • Bonnefille R, and Vincens A (1985) Apport de la palynologie a l'environnement des hominidés d'Afrique orientale. In Fondation Singer-Polignac (ed.): L'Environnement des Hominidés au Plio-Pléistocène. Paris: Masson, pp. 237278.
  • Bonnefille R, Vincens A, and Buchet G (1987) Palynology, stratigraphy and palaeoenvironment of a Pliocene site (2.9–3.3 M.Y.) at Hadar, Ethiopia. Palaeogeogr. Palaeoclimatol. Palaeoecol. 60: 249281.
  • Bower B (1987) Family feud: Enter the “black skull.” Sci. News 131: 5859.
  • Brown FH (1982) Tulu Bor Tuff at Koobi Fora correlated with the Sidi Hakoma Tuff at Hadar. Nature 300: 631633.
  • Brown FH, McDougall I, and Maier R (1985) An integrated Plio-Pleistocene chronology of the Turkana basin. In EDelson (ed.): Ancestors: The Hard Evidence. New York: Alan R. Liss, Inc., pp. 8290.
  • Charteris J, Wall JC, and Nottrodt JW (1982) Pliocene hominid gait: New interpretations based on available footprint data from Laetoli. Am. J. Phys. Anthropol. 58: 133144.
  • Ciochon RL (1983) Hominoid cladistics and the ancestry of modern apes and humans: A summary. In RLCiochon and RSCorruccini (eds.): New Interpretations of Ape and Human Ancestry. New York: Plenum, pp. 783843.
  • Clark JD, Asfaw B, Assefa G, Harris JWK, Kurashina H, Walter RC, White TD, and Williams MAJ (1984) Palaeoanthropological discoveries in the Middle Awash Valley, Ethiopia. Nature 307: 423428.
  • Coppens Y (1980) The differences between Australopithecus and Homo: Preliminary conclusions from the Omo Research Expedition's studies. In L-KKonigsson (ed.): Current Argument on Early Man. Oxford: Pergamon Press, pp. 207225.
  • Coppens Y (1983) Les plus anciens fossiles d'Hominidés. In CChagas (ed.): Recent Advances in the Evolution of Primates. Pontificia Academia Scientiarum Scripta Varia 50: 19.
  • Cronin JE, Boaz NT, Stringer CB, and Rak Y (1981) Tempo and mode in hominid evolution. Nature 292: 113122.
  • Dart RA (1925) Australopithecus africanus: The man-ape of South Africa. Nature 115: 195199.
  • Day MH, Leakey MD, and Olson TR (1980) On the status of Australopithecus afarensis. Science 207: 11041105.
  • Day MH, Leakey REF, Walker AC, and Wood BA (1976) New hominids from East Turkana, Kenya. Am. J. Phys. Anthropol. 45: 369436.
  • Day MH, and Magori C (1980) A new hominid fossil skull (L.H. 18) from the Ngaloba Beds, Laetoli, northern Tanzania. Nature 284: 5556.
  • Day MH, and Wickens EH (1980) Laetoli Tanzania Pliocene hominid footprints and bipedalism. Nature 286: 385387.
  • de Heinzelin J (1983) The Omo Group. Archives of the International Omo Research Expedition. Mus. R. Afr. Centrale Tervuren, Ann. Sci. Geol. 85.
  • Delson E (1984) Cercopithecid biochronology of the African Plio-Pleistocene: Correlation among eastern and southern hominid-bearing localities. Cour. Forsch. Inst. Senckenberg 69: 199218.
  • Delson E (1986) Human phylogeny revised again. Nature 322: 496497.
  • Denys C (1984) Biostratigraphic revision of the faunal dates at Hadar (Ethiopia). Newslett. Stratigr. 13: 175183.
  • Denys C (1987) Fossil rodents (other than Pedetidae) from Laetoli. In MDLeakey and JMHarris (eds.): Laetoli: A Pliocene Site in Northern Tanzania. Oxford: Clarendon, pp. 118170.
  • Drake R, and Curtis GH (1987) K-Ar geochronology of the Laetoli fossil localities. In MDLeakey and JMHarris (eds.): Laetoli: A Pliocene Site in Northern Tanzania. Oxford: Clarendon, pp. 4852.
  • Eckhardt RB (1987) Hominoid nasal region polymorphism and its phylogenetic significance. Nature 328: 333335.
  • Falk D (1985) Hadar AL162–28 endocast as evidence that brain enlargement preceded cortical reorganization in hominid evolution. Nature 313: 4547.
  • Falk D (1987) Hominid paleoneurology. Annu. Rev. Anthropol. 16: 1330.
  • Falk D, and Conroy GC (1983) The cranial venous sinus system in Australopithecus afarensis. Nature 306: 779781.
  • Ferguson WW (1983) An alternative interpretation of Australopithecus afarensis. Primates 24: 397409.
  • Ferguson WW (1984) Revision of fossil hominid jaws from the Plio/Pleistocene of Hadar, in Ethiopia, including a new species of the genus Homo (Hominoidea: Homininae). Primates 25: 519529.
  • Ferguson WW (1986) The taxonomic status of Praeanthropus africanus (Primates: Pongidae) from the late Pliocene of eastern Africa. Primates 27: 485492.
  • Geissmann T (1986) Estimation of australopithecine stature from long bones: A.L. 288-1 as a test case. Folia Primatol. (Basel) 47: 119127.
  • Gentry AW (1985) Pliocene and Pleistocene Bovidae in Africa. In Fondation Singer-Polignac (ed.): L'Environnement des Hominidés au Plio-Pléistocène. Paris: Masson, pp. 119132.
  • Gray BT (1980) Environmental Reconstruction of the Hadar Formation (Afar, Ethiopia). Ph.D. Dissertation, Case Western Reserve University. Ann Arbor: University Microfilms.
  • Grine F (1985) Australopithecine evolution: The deciduous dental evidence. In EDelson (ed.): Ancestors: The Hard Evidence. New York: Alan R. Liss, Inc., pp. 153163.
  • Groves CP, and Mazak V (1975) An approach to the taxonomy of the Homindae: Gracile Villafranchian hominids of Africa. Casopsis Mineral Geol 20: 225247.
  • Harris JM (1983) Correlation of the Koobi Fora Succession. In JMHarris (ed.): Koobi Fora Research Project, Vol. 2. The Fossil Ungulates: Proboscidea, Perissodactyla, and Suidae. Oxford: Clarendon, pp. 303317.
  • Harris JM (1985) Age and paleoecology of the Upper Laetolil Beds, Laetoli, Tanzania. In EDelson (ed.): Ancestors: The Hard Evidence. New York: Alan R. Liss, Inc., pp. 7681.
  • Hay RL (1976) Geology of the Olduvai Gorge. Berkeley: Univ. California Press.
  • Hay RL (1981): Paleoenvironment of the Laetolil Beds, northern Tanzania. In GRapp and CFVondra (eds.): Hominid Sites: Their Geologic Settings. AAAS Selected Symposia 63. Boulder, CO: Westview, pp. 724.
  • Hay RL (1987) Geology of the Laetoli area. In MDLeakey and JMHarris (eds.): Laetoli: A Pliocene Site in Northern Tanzania. Oxford: Clarendon, pp. 2347.
  • Hennig E (1948) Quatarfaunen und Urgeschichte Ostafrikas. Naturwiss. Rundsch. 12 ( 5 ): 212217.
  • Hennig W (1965) Phylogenetic systematics. Annu. Rev. Entomol. 10: 97116. Reprinted In ESober (ed.): Conceptual Issues in Evolutionary Biology. Cambridge: MIT Press, pp. 603622.
  • Hill A (1985) Early hominid from Baringo, Kenya. Nature 315: 222224.
  • Hinrichsen D (1978) How old are our ancestors? New Sci. 78 ( 1105 ): 571.
  • Holloway RL (1983a) Cerebral brain endocast pattern of Australopithecus afarensis. Nature 303: 420422.
  • Holloway RL (1983b) Human paleontological evidence relevant to language behavior. Hum. Neurobiol. 2: 105114.
  • Holloway RL (1985) The past, present, and future significance of the lunate sulcus in early hominid evolution. In PVTobias (ed.): Hominid Evolution: Past, Present, and Future. New York: Alan R. Liss, Inc., pp. 4762.
  • Holloway RL, and Kimbel WH (1986) Endocast morphology of Hadar hominid AL 162–28. Nature 321: 536.
  • Howell FC (1968) Omo Research Expedition. Nature 219: 567572.
  • Howell FC (1978) Hominidae. In VJMaglio and HBSCooke (eds.): Evolution of African Mammals. Cambridge: Harvard Univ. Press, pp. 154248.
  • Hunt K, and Vitzthum VJ (1986) Dental metric assessment of the Omo fossils: Implications for the phyletic position of Australopithecus africanus. Am. J. Phys. Anthropol. 71: 141155.
  • International Commission on Zoological Nomenclature (1985) International Code of Zoological Nomenclature. Berkeley: University of Calfornia Press.
  • Johanson DC (1976) Ethiopia yields first “family” of early man. Natl. Geogr. 150 ( 6 ): 790811.
  • Johanson DC (1977) Rethinking the origins of the genus Homo. In RDuncan and MWeston-Smith (eds.): The Encyclopaedia of Ignorance. New York: Pergamon, pp. 243250.
  • Johanson DC (1985a) Discussion. In Fondation Singer-Polignac (ed.): L'Environnement des Hominidés au Plio-Pléistocène. Paris: Masson, pp. 430438.
  • Johanson DC (1985b) The most primitive Australopithecus. In PVTobias (ed.): Hominid Evolution: Past, Present and Future. New York: Alan R. Liss, Inc., pp. 203212.
  • Johanson DC, and Taieb M (1976) Plio-Pleistocene hominid discoveries in Hadar, Ethiopia. Nature 260: 293297.
  • Johanson DC, Taieb M, and Coppens Y (1982) Pliocene hominids from the Hadar Formation, Ethiopia (1972–1977): Stratigraphic, chronologic, and paleoenvironmental contexts, with notes on hominid morphology and systematics. Am. J. Phys. Anthropol. 57: 373402.
  • Johanson DC, Taieb M, Gray BT, and Coppens Y (1978a) Geological framework of the Pliocene Hadar Formation (Afar, Ethiopia) with notes on paleontology, including hominids. In WWBishop (ed.): Geological Background to Fossil Man. Edinburgh: Scottish Academic Press, pp. 549564.
  • Johanson DC, and White TD (1979a) A systematic assessment of early African hominids. Science 202: 321330.
  • Johanson DC, and White TD (1979b) Problems in hominid taxonomy. Nature 281: 258.
  • Johanson DC, and White TD (1980) On the status of Australopithecus afarensis. Science 207: 11041105.
  • Johanson DC, White TD, and Coppens Y (1978b) A new species of the genus Australopithecus (Primates: Hominidae) from the Pliocene of eastern Africa. Kirtlandia 28: 114.
  • Jungers WL (1982) Lucy's limbs: Skeletal allometry and locomotion in Australopithecus afarensis. Nature 297: 676678.
  • Kalb JE (1978) Miocene to Pleistocene deposits in the Afar Depression, Ethiopia. SINET: Ethiop. J. Sci. 1: 8798.
  • Kalb JE, Jolly CJ, Mebrate A, Tebedge S, Smart C, Oswald EB, Cramer D, Whitehead P, Wood CB, Conroy GC, Adefris T, Sperling I, and Kana B (1982a) Fossil mammals and artefacts from the Middle Awash Valley, Ethiopia. Nature 298: 2529.
  • Kalb JE, Oswald EB, Tebedge S, Mebrate A, Tola E, and Peak D (1982b) Geology and stratigraphy of Neogene deposits, Middle Awash Valley, Ethiopia. Nature 298: 1725.
  • Kay RF (1985) Dental evidence for the diet of Australopithecus. Annu. Rev. Anthropol. 14: 315341.
  • Kimbel WH (1984) Variation in the pattern of cranial venous sinuses and hominid phylogeny. Am. J. Phys. Anthropol. 63: 243263.
  • Kimbel WH, Johanson DC, and Coppens Y (1982) Pliocene hominid cranial remains from the Hadar Formation, Ethiopia. Am. J. Phys. Anthropol. 57: 453500.
  • Kimbel WH, and Rak Y (1985) Functional morphology of the asterionic region in extant hominids and extinct hominids. Am. J. Phys. Anthropol. 66: 3154.
  • Kimbel WH, White TD, and Johanson DC (1984) Cranial morphology of Australopithecus afarensis: A comparative study based on a composite reconstruction of the adult skull. Am. J. Phys. Anthropol. 64: 337388.
  • Kimbel WH, White TD, and Johanson DC (1985) Craniodental morphology of the hominids from Hadar and Laetoli: Evidence of “Paranthropus” and Homo in the Mid-Pliocene of Eastern Africa? In EDelson (ed.): Ancestors: The Hard Evidence. New York: Alan R. Liss, Inc., pp. 120137.
  • Kohl-Larsen L (1943) Auf den Spuren des Vormenschen: Forschungen, Fahrten und Erlebnisse in Deutsch-Ostafrika. Band II. Stuttgart: Strecker und Schröder.
  • Lamy P (1986) The settlement of the longitudinal plantar arch of some African Plio-Pleistocene hominids: A morphological study. J. Hum. Evol. 15: 3146.
  • Latimer BM, White TD, Kimbel WH, Johanson DC, and Lovejoy CO (1981) The pygmy chimpanzee is not a living missing link in human evolution. J. Hum. Evol. 10: 475488.
  • Latimer BM, Lovejoy CO, Johanson DC, and Coppens Y (1982) Hominid tarsal, metatarsal, and phalangeal bones recovered from the Hadar Formation: 1974–77 collections. Am. J. Phys. Anthropol. 57: 701719.
  • Leakey LSB (1974) By the Evidence. Memoirs, 1932–1951. New York: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich.
  • Leakey MD (1987a) The Laetoli hominid remains. In MDLeakey and JMHarris (eds.): Laetoli: A Pliocene Site in Northern Tanzania. Oxford: Clarendon, pp. 108117.
  • Leakey MD (1987b) Hominid footprints. In MDLeakey and JMHarris (eds.): Laetoli: A Pliocene Site in Northern Tanzania. Oxford: Clarendon, pp. 490496.
  • LeakeyMD, and HarrisJM (eds.) (1987) Laetoli: A Pliocene Site in Northern Tanzania. Oxford: Clarendon.
  • Leakey MD, and Hay RL (1979) Pliocene footprints in the Laetolil Beds at Laetoli, northern Tanzania. Nature 278: 317323.
  • Leakey MD, Hay RL, Curtis GH, Drake RE, Jackes MK, and White TD (1976) Fossil hominids from the Laetolil Beds. Nature 262: 460466.
  • LeakeyMG, and LeakeyRE (eds.) (1978) Koobi Fora Research Project. Volume 1. The Fossil Hominids and an Introduction to Their Context, 1968–1974. Oxford: Clarendon Press.
  • Leakey REF (1976) New fossil hominids from the Koobi Fora Formation. Nature 261: 574576.
  • Leonard WR, and Hegmon M (1987) Evolution of P3 morphology in Australopithecus afarensis. Am. J. Phys. Anthropol. 73: 4163.
  • Lewin R (1986) New fossil upsets human family. Science 233: 720721.
  • Lewin R (1987) My close cousin the chimpanzee. Science 238: 273275.
  • Logan, TR, Lucas SG, and Sobus JC (1983) The taxonomic status of Australopithecus afarensis Johanson in Hinrichsen 1978 (Mammalia, Primates). Haliksa'i: UNM Contrib. Anthropol. 2: 1627.
  • Lovejoy CO (1981) The origin of man. Science 21: 341350.
  • Lovejoy CO, Johanson DC, and Coppens Y (1982) Hominid upper limb bones recovered from the Hadar Formation: 1974–1977 collections. Am. J. Phys. Anthropol. 57: 637649.
  • Martin RD (1983) Human Brain Evolution in an Ecological Context. Fifty-second James Arthur Lecture on the Evolution of the Human Brain. New York: Am. Mus. Nat. Hist.
  • Marzke MW (1983) Joint functions and grip of the Australopithecus afarensis hand, with special reference to the region of the capitate. J. Hum. Evol. 12: 197211.
  • McDougall I (1985) K-Ar and 40Ar/39Ar dating of the hominid-bearing Plio-Pleistocene sequence at Koobi Fora, Lake Turkana, northern Kenya. Geol. Soc. Am. Bull. 96: 159175.
  • McHenry HM (1982) The pattern of human evolution: Studies on bipedalism, mastication, and encephalization. Annu. Rev. Anthropol. 11: 151173.
  • McHenry HM (1983) The capitate of Australopithecus afarensis and A. africanus. Am. J. Phys. Anthropol. 62: 187198.
  • McHenry HM (1984) Relative cheek tooth size in Australopithecus. Am. J. Phys. Anthropol. 64: 297306.
  • McHenry HM (1986) The first bipeds: A comparison of the A. afarensis and A. africanus postcranium and implications for the evolution of bipedalism. J. Hum. Evol. 15: 177191.
  • Miyamoto MM, Slighton JL, and Goodman M (1987) Phylogenetic relations of humans and African apes from DNA sequences in η-globin region. Science 238: 369373.
  • Oakley KP, Campbell BG, and Molleson TI (1977) Catalogue of Fossil Hominids. Part I. Africa. Second Edition. London: British Museum (Natural History).
  • Olson TR (1981) Basicranial morphology of the extant hominoids and Pliocene hominids: The new material from the Hadar Formation, Ethiopia, and its significance in early human evolution and taxonomy. In CBStringer (ed.): Aspects of Human Evolution. London: Taylor and Francis, pp. 99128.
  • Olson TR (1985) Cranial morphology and systematics of the Hadar Formation hominids and “Australopithecus” africanus. In EDelson (ed.): Ancestors: The Hard Evidence. New York: Alan R. Liss, Inc., pp. 102119.
  • Pickford M, Johanson DC, Lovejoy CO, White TD, and Aronson JL (1983) A hominoid humeral fragment from the Pliocene of Kenya. Am. J. Phys. Anthropol. 60: 337346.
  • Pilbeam D (1984) The descent of hominoids and hominids. Sci. Am. 250: 8496.
  • Puech P-F, and Albertini H (1984) Dental microwear and mechanisms in early hominids from Laetoli and Hadar. Am. J. Phys. Anthropol. 65: 8791.
  • Puech P-F, Cianfarani F, and Roth H (1986) Reconstruction of the maxillary dental arcade of Garusi Hominid 1. J. Hum. Evol. 15: 325332.
  • Rak Y (1983) The Australopithecine Face. New York: Academic.
  • Rak Y (1985) Australopithecine taxonomy and phylogeny in light of facial morphology. Am. J. Phys. Anthropol. 66: 281288.
  • Robbins LG (1987) Hominid footprints from Site G. In MDLeakey and JMHaris (eds.): Laetoli: A Pliocene Site in Northern Tanzania. Oxford: Clarendon, pp. 497502.
  • Sabatier M (1982) Les rongeurs du site Pliocène a Hominidés de Hadar (Ethiopie). Palaeovertebrata 212 ( 1 ): 156.
  • Sarna-Wojcicki AM, Meyer CE, Roth PH, and Brown FH (1985) Ages of tuff beds at East African early hominid sites and sediments in the Gulf of Aden. Nature 313: 306308.
  • Schmid P (1983) Eine Rekonstruktion des Skelette von A.L.288-1 (Hadar) und deren Konsequenzen. Folia Primatol. (Basel) 40: 283306.
  • Schmitt TJ, and Nairn AEM (1984) Interpretations of the magnetostratigraphy of the Hadar hominid site, Ethiopia. Nature 309: 704706.
  • Schoch RM (1986) Phylogeny Reconstruction in Paleontology. New York: Van Nostrand Reinhold.
  • Senut B (1981) L'Humerus et ses Articulations Chez les Hominidés Plio-Pléistocènes. Cahiers de Paléontologie (Paléoanthropologie). Paris: Editions du CNRS.
  • Senut B, and Tardieu C (1985) Functional aspects of Plio-Pleistocene hominid limb bones: Implications for taxonomy and phylogeny. In EDelson (ed.): Ancestors: The Hard Evidence. New York: Alan R. Liss, Inc., pp. 193201.
  • Şenyürek MS (1955) A note on the teeth of Meganthropus africanus Weinart from Tanganyika Territory. Turk Tarih Kurumu Bell. 19: 141.
  • Sibley CG, and Ahlquist JE (1984) The phylogeny of the hominoid primates, as indicated by DNA-DNA hybridization. J. Mol. Evol. 20: 215.
  • Skelton RR, McHenry HM, and Drawhorn GM (1986) Phylogenetic analysis of early hominids. Curr. Anthropol. 27: 2143.
  • Stern JT, and Susman RL (1983) The locomotor anatomy of Australopithecus afarensis. Am. J. Phys. Anthropol. 60: 279318.
  • Susman RL, Stern JT, and Jungers WL (1984) Arboreality and bipedality in the Hadar hominids. Folia Primatol (Basel) 43: 113156.
  • Tague RG, and Lovejoy CO (1986) The obstetric pelvis of A.L. 288-1 Lucy. J. Hum. Evol. 15: 237255.
  • Taieb M (1974) Evolution Quaternaire de Bassin de l'Awash. Thesis. Université de Paris VI. Paris.
  • Taieb M, Coppens Y, Johanson DC, and Kalb J (1972) Depots sedimentaires et faunes du pliopléistocènes de la basse valée de l'Awash. C.R. Acad. Sci. Ser. D 275: 819822.
  • Taieb M, Johanson DC, and Coppens Y (1975) Expédition internationale de l'Afar, Ethiopie (3e campagne 1974); decouverté d'hominidés pliopléistocènes a Hadar. C.R. Acad. Sci. (Paris) 281D: 12971300.
  • Taieb M, Johanson DC, Coppens Y, Bonnefille R, and Kalb J (1974) Decouverté d'hominidés dans les series plio-pléistocènes d'Hadar (Bassin de l'Awash; Afar, Ethiopie). C.R. Acad. Sci. 279-D: 735738.
  • Tardieu C (1983) L'Articulation du Genou. Analyse Morpho-Fonctionelle Chez les Primates. Application aux Hominidés Fossiles. Cahiers de Paleoanthropologie. Paris: Editions du CNRS.
  • Tobias PV (1967) The Cranium and Maxillary Dentition of Australopithecus (Zinjanthropus) boisei. Cambridge: Cambridge Univ. Press.
  • Tobias PV (1978) Position et role des Australopithecines dans la phylogenese humaine, avec étude particuliere de Homo habilis et des theories controverées avancées à propos des premiers hominidés fossiles de Hadar et de Laetolil. In Fondation Singer-Polignac (ed.): Les Origenes Humaines et les Epoques de l'Intelligence. Paris: Masson, pp. 3877.
  • Tobias PV (1980a) “Australopithecus afarensis” and A. africanus: Critique and an alternative hypothesis. Palaeontol. Afr. 23: 117.
  • Tobias PV (1980b) A survey and synthesis of the African hominids of the late Tertiary and early Quaternary periods. In L-KKonigsson (ed.): Curent Argument on Early Man. Proceedings of a Nobel Symposium. Oxford: Pergamon, pp. 86113.
  • Tobias PV (1983a) Hominid evolution in Africa. Can. J. Anthropol. 3: 163185.
  • Tobias PV (1983b) Recent advances in the evolution of the hominids with especial reference to brain and speech. In CChagas (ed.): Recent Advances in the Evolution of Primates. Pontificia Academia Scientiarum Scripta Varia 50: 85140.
  • Tobias PV (1985) Single characters and the total morphological pattern redefined: The sorting effected by a selection of morphological features of the early hominids. In EDelson (ed.): Ancestors: The Hard Evidence. New York: Alan R. Liss, Inc., pp. 94101.
  • Tobias PV (1987) The brain of Homo habilis: A new level of organization in cerebral evolution. J. Hum. Evol. 16: 741761.
  • Tuttle RH (1985) Ape footprints and Laetoli Tanzania impressions. A response to the SUNY claims. In PVTobias (ed.): Hominid Evolution: Past, Present and Future. New York: Alan R. Liss, Inc., pp. 129134.
  • Tuttle RH (1987) Kinesiological inferences and evolutionary implications from Laetoli bipedal trails G-1, G-2/3, and A. In MDLeakey and JMHarris (eds.): Laetoli: A Pliocene Site in Northern Tanzania. Oxford: Clarendon, pp. 503523.
  • Walker A, Leakey RE, Harris JM, and Brown FH (1986) 2.5-Myr Australopithecus boisei from west of Lake Turkana, Kenya. Nature 322: 517522.
  • Walter RC, and Aronson JL (1982) Revisons of K/Ar ages for the Hadar hominid site, Ethiopia. Nature 296: 122127.
  • Ward S, and Hill A (1987) Pliocene hominid partial mandible from Tabarin, Baringo, Kenya. Am. J. Phys. Anthropol. 72: 2137.
  • Washburn SL (1971) The study of human evolution. In PDolhinow and VMSarich (eds.): Background for Man. Boston: Little Brown, pp. 82117.
  • Weinert H (1950) Uber die neuen vor- und fruhmenschenfunde aus Afrika, Java, China und Frankreich. Z. Morphol. Anthropol. 42: 113148.
  • Wesselman HB (1984) The Omo Micromammals. Systematics and Paleoecology of Early Man Sites from Ethiopia. In MKHecht and FSSzalay (eds.): Contributions to Vertebrate Evolution, Vol. 7. Basel: Karger.
  • White TD (1977) New fossil hominids from Laetolil, Tanzania. Am. J. Phys. Anthropol. 46: 197230.
  • White TD (1980) Additional fossil hominids from Laetoli, Tanzania: 1976–1979 specimens. Am. J. Phys. Anthropol. 53: 487504.
  • White TD (1981) Primitive hominid canine from Tanzania. Science 213: 348.
  • White TD (1984) Pliocene hominids from the Middle Awash. Cour. Forsch. Senckenberg 69: 5768.
  • White TD (1985) The hominids of Hadar and Laetoli: An element-by-element comparison of the dental samples. In EDelson (ed.): Ancestors: The Hard Evidence. New York: Alan R. Liss, Inc., pp. 138152.
  • White TD (1986) Australopithecus afarensis and the Lothagam mandible. Anthropos (Brno) 23: 7990.
  • White TD, Johanson DC, and Kimbel WH (1981) Australopithecus africanus: Its phyletic position reconsidered. S. Afr. J. Sci. 77: 445470.
  • White TD, Moore RV, and Suwa G (1984) Hadar biostratigraphy and hominid evolution. J. Vert. Paleontol. 4: 575583.
  • White TD, and Suwa G (1987) Hominid footprints at Laetoli Tanzania: Facts and interpretations. Am. J. Phys. Anthropol. 72: 485514.
  • Williams BJ (1987) (Rates) of evolution: Is there a conflict between neo-darwinian evolutionary theory and the fossil record? Am. J. Phys. Anthropol. 73: 99109.
  • Williamson PG (1985) Evidence for an early Plio-Pleistocene rainforest expansion in East Africa. Nature 315: 487489.
  • Wolpoff MH (1983a) Australopithecines: The unwanted ancestors. In KReichs (ed.): Hominid Origins. Washington: University Press, pp. 109126.
  • Wolpoff MH (1983b) Lucy's lower limbs: Long enough for Lucy to be fully bipedal? Nature 304: 5961.
  • Zihlman AL (1985) Australopithecus afarensis: Two sexes or two species? In PVTobias (ed.): Hominid Evolution: Past, Present and Future. New York: Alan R. Liss, Inc., pp. 213220.
  • Zihlman AL, Cronin JE, Cramer DL, and Sarich VL (1978) Pygmy chimpanzee as a possible prototype for the common ancestor of humans, chimpanzees and gorillas. Nature 275: 744746.