A comparison of the dermatoglyphic features of 60 Greek Cypriots from the coastal region of Yialousa and 60 from the isolated mountainous region of Troodos showed significant differences only in the frequencies of digital whorls and loops in the left hands of the males and in the frequencies of Thenar/I patterns in the palms of the females. All other comparisons produced nonsignificant differences. The overall dermatoglyphic similarities are in contrast to the previously described serological, hematological and historical differences indicating that the mountain and coastal people of Cyprus may be genetically distinct. Two possible explanations for the observed discrepancies between the blood group and dermatoglyphic findings were advanced: (1) The more involved inheritance of most dermatoglyphic features which renders them less vulnerable to the influence of isolation and genetic drift than the blood groups, and (2) the similarities in the frequencies of the dermatoglyphic features among the various ethnic groups of the eastern part of the Mediterranean.