• Jaw mechanics;
  • Dentitions;
  • Tooth wear


Masticatory movements and molar wear facets in species of Tupaia, Galago, Saimiri, and Ateles have been examined using cinefluorography and occlusal analysis. The molars have been compared with those of a fossil series: Palenochtha, Pelycodus and Aegyptopithecus.

The extant primates are almost identical in their feeding behaviour, the movements and timing of the masticatory cycle. Food is first puncture-crushed where the cycle is elongated, the power stroke attenuated and abrasion facets are produced on the molars. Chewing follows, the movements are more complex, the power stroke has two distinct parts and attrition facets are produced. In the primitive forms (Tupaia, Palenochtha), shearing blades, arranged in series (en echelon) were used to cut the food during the first part (Phase I) of the power stroke as the lower teeth move into centric occlusion. This mechanism has been progressively replaced by a system of blade-ringed compression chambers which cut and compartmentalise the food in Phase I. This is followed by an anteromedially and inferiorly directed movement away from centric occlusion (Phase II) in which the food is ground. In both extant and fossil series there has been a clear trend towards the elongation of Phase II with a corresponding reduction in Phase I.

These results suggest that the observed changes in the morphology of the jaw apparatus have probably occurred within the limits set by a pre-existing behavioral pattern.