Data on the permanent dentition of 153 individuals from the well known Indian Knoll skeletal population are presented. Mesiodistal and buccolingual measurements were taken with a Helios dial caliper. Cusp number of maxillary and mandibular molars was recorded.
The Indian Knoll dentition is larger than many modern groups but smaller than Australoid or Mesolithic groups. With the exception of maxillary 12, males have larger teeth than females in both dimensions. The lower canine is the most dimorphic tooth. Through rank order correlation, an association was shown between the sexual dimorphism of the mesiodistal and buccolingual dimensions. Compared to modern groups, the Indian Knoll population displays a moderate degree of sexual dimorphism in tooth size.
In general, the coefficients of variation were greater for the more distal teeth within morphological classes. Amounts of size variability did not differ significantly between the sexes; moreover, rank order correlations indicated that patterns of variability in both dimensions were similar for males and females.
The predominant cusp number pattern for upper molars is 4-3-3 and for lowers, 5-5(4)-5. No sex differences were shown for cusp occurrence or bilateral asymmetry in cusp number.