• Tooth agenesis;
  • Upper lateral incisors;
  • Congenital defects


We surveyed a French male population for the incidence of missing or reduced upper lateral incisors (ULI). In 5,738 subjects, we observed an incidence of 1.59% with one or two reduced ULI (the other normal) and 1.90% with one or two missing ULI (the other normal or reduced), altogether, 3.49% affected subjects. Furthermore, 250 random controls were observed. Agenesis of other teeth is more frequent in propositi. Missing third molars were 12.4% in controls, 24.0% in propositi with reduced ULI and 39.6% in propositi with two missing ULI. Furthermore, agenesis of incisors, canines and premolars ranges from 0.4% in controls to 1.3% in propositi having reduced ULI and 5.0% in propositi with two missing ULI. So, propositi with reduced ULI are intermediate between the controls and the propositi with missing ULI with respect to the frequency of agenesis of other teeth.

On the other hand, a different ranking is observed with respect to the teeth measurements: reduction of tooth size is more marked in propositi with reduced ULI than in propositi with missing ULI. The reduction mainly affects canines, incisors and to a lesser degree, premolars. Arch length and interpremolar diameters are smaller in propositi with missing ULI, compared with controls.