Data on serum protein levels of four populations from Rwanda were analyzed by multivariate statistical methods to assess their utility as an anthropological tool. These populations consisted of two ethnic groups in two different environments. Seven proteins were considered in the analysis. The total concentration of proteins is intermediate between Italian levels and those of the Binga pygmies of the Republic of Central Africa (RCA). Discrimination between the populations was possible with a 25% misclassification. The major principal components can be interpreted from a medical viewpoint, and show significant differences between the populations.