Phenotype and allelic frequencies for ABO, MNSs, P, Rh, Kell, Duffy, and Diego blood groups, as well as for transferrins (Tf), haptoglobins (Hp), phosphoglucomutase 1 (PGM1), adenylate kinase (AK), 6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase (PGD), and acid phosphatase (AcP) are described in 9–10 adjoining populations of Reindeer Chukchi. Additionally, one of three presently existing territorial subgroups of Siberian Eskimos was studied. The total sample size ranges from 931 to 1,066 in Chukchi, and from 99 to 102 in Eskimos, depending on the genetic system studied. Substantially reduced samples for Kidd and ABO secretion were investigated solely in the Reindeer Chukchi. Significant heterogeneity of allelic frequencies has been observed among Chukchi populations (χ = 378.47, P < 0.001). Summed genetic heterogeneity between Reindeer Chukchi and Siberian Eskimos was also found to be highly significant (χ = 186.54, P < 0.001). Both groups can be readily discriminated with only four outliers: NS, P1, R1, and Pa. Random genetic drift is suggested to be responsible for a large proportion of heterogeneity of allelic frequencies at the MNSs, P, and Rh blood-group system sites both among the Chukchi and Eskimos. Conversely, stabilizing selection is assumed as the principal agent maintaining homogeneous allelic frequencies at the AcP locus within the Chukchi subdivisions, whereas disruptive selection may be considered as a major factor leading to different pa frequencies between Chukchi and Eskimos.