The Eskimos of St. Lawrence Island have been typed for genetic variation at 44 discrete genetic loci. Three private polymorphisms, at the 2,3-diphosphoglycerate mutase, peptidase B, and purine nucleoside phosphorylase loci, have been observed, which may be useful in future studies of genetic relationships between Eskimos and other circumpolar populations. Genetic distance analysis reveals a close relationship between the St. Lawrence Island Eskimos and other Eskimo populations and that the Eskimo populations form a distinct cluster from Amerindian populations. The St. Lawrence Island Eskimos appear to be more similar to Asiatic Eskimos than to other groups. Caucasian admixture in this population is estimated to be between 2 and 7%.