• Discrete dental variations;
  • biological distance;
  • divergence;
  • Smith-Grewal statistic;
  • Nubia;
  • Wadi Halfa;
  • Kulubnarti


During the 1963–1964 field season, the University of Colorado's Nubian Expedition excavated a series of Meroitic, X-Group, and Christian cemeteries from Wadi Halfa Sudan. Recently a joint expedition sponsored by the Universities of Colorado and Kentucky excavated two additional Christian cemeteries from Kulubnarti, some 80 miles south of Wadi Halfa. Earlier analysis of discrete dental variations demonstrated that the Wadi Halfa populations did not differ significantly from one another. Application of the Smith-Grewal multivariate measure of biological divergence, as modified by Sjøvold, and Green and Suchey, corroborates the original conclusion of biological stability and continuity for the Wadi Halfa populations, as well as demonstrating that the Kulubnarti populations are part of that pattern. None of the populations are significantly different from one another.