Cephalometric radiographs were taken of 111 skulls of skeletal remains of populations living in Israel and Jordan during the last 12,000 years. From these radiographs, skull length and height, and cranial thickness were measured. For each sex and period, high correlations were found between cranial thickness at vertex, bregma, and lambda. Cranial thickness at nasion was correlated with sinus width but not sinus height. All measurements were correlated with skull length but not skull breadth. Using multivariate analysis, no significant differences in cranial thickness were found between the sexes. Significant diachronic trends were found in lambda and sinus width, and they were independent of variation in skull length.