Architectural and histochemical diversity within the quadriceps femoris of the brown lemur (Lemur fulvus)



Physiologically related features of muscle morphology are considered with regard to functional adaptation for locomotor and postural behavior in the brown lemur (Lemur fulvus). Reduced physiological cross-sectional area, estimated maximum excursion of the tendon of insertion, length of tendon per muscle fasciculus, and areal fiber type composition were examined in the quadriceps femoris in order to assess the extent of “division of labor” among four apparent synergists.

Each of these four muscles in this prosimian primate displays a distinguishing constellation of morphological features that implies functional specialization during posture and normal locomotion (walk/run, galloping, leaping). Vastus medialis is best suited for rapid whole muscle recruitment and may be reserved for relatively vigorous activities such as galloping and leaping (e.g., small cross-sectional area per mass, long excursion, predominance of fast-low oxidative fibers, relatively little tendon per fasciculus). In theory, rectus femoris could be employed isometrically in order to store elastic strain energy during all phasic activities (e.g., large cross-sectional area per mass, short excursion, predominance of fast-high oxidative fibers, large amount of tendon per fasciculus). Vastus intermedius exhibits an overall morphology indicative of a typical postural muscle (e.g., substantial cross-sectional area, short excursion, predominance of slow-high oxidative fibers, large amount of tendon per fasciculus). The construction of vastus lateralis reflects an adaptation for high force, relatively high velocity, and resistance to fatigue (e.g., large cross-sectional area, long excursion, most heterogeneous distribution of fiber types, large amount of tendon per fasciculus); this muscle is probably the primary contributor to a wide range of locomotor behaviors in lemurs.

Marked dramatic architectural disparity among the four bellies, coupled with relative overall fiber type heterogeneity, suggests the potential for exceptional flexibility in muscle recruitment within this mass. One interpretation of this relatively complex neuromuscular organization in the brown lemur is that it represents an adaptation for the exploitation of a three-dimensional arboreal environment by rapid quadrupedalism and leaping among irregular and spatially disordered substrates.