• Bipedalism;
  • Erector spinae;
  • Multifidus;
  • Electromyography;
  • Hominoids


The evolution of erect posture and locomotion continues to be a major focus of interest among paleoanthropologists and functional morphologists. To date, virtually all of our knowledge about the functional role of the back muscles in the evolution of bipedalism is based on human experimental data. In order to broaden our evolutionary perspective on the vertebral region, we have undertaken an electromyographic (EMG) analysis of three deep back muscles (multifidus, longissimus thoracis, iliocostalis lumborum) in the chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes) and gibbon (Hylobates lar) during bipedal walking. The recruitment patterns of these three muscles seen in the chimpanzee closely parallel those observed in the gibbon. The activity patterns of multifidus and longissimus are more similar to each other than either is to iliocostalis. Iliocostalis recruitment is clearly related to contact by the contralateral limb during bipedal walking in both species. It is suggested that in both the chimpanzee and gibbon, multifidus controls trunk movement primarily in the sagittal plane, iliocostalis responds to and adjusts movement in the frontal plane, while longissimus contributes to both of these functions. In many respects, the activity patterns shared by the chimpanzee and gibbon are quite consistent with recent human experimental data. This suggests a basic similarity in the mechanical constraints placed on the back during bipedalism among these three hominoids. Thus, the acquisition of habitual bipedalism in humans probably involved not so much a major change in back muscle action or function, but rather an improvement in the mechanical advantages and architecture of these muscles.