• Amerindian populations;
  • Amazon region;
  • HV1;
  • HV2;
  • COII/tRNALys 9-bp deletion


New data were obtained on mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) from Guahibo from Venezuela, a group so far not studied using molecular data. A population sample (n = 59) was analyzed for mtDNA variation in two control-region hypervariable segments (HV1 and HV2) by sequencing. The presence or absence of a 9-bp polymorphism in the COII/tRNALys region was studied by direct amplification and electrophoretic identification. Thirty-eight variable sites were detected in regions HV1 and HV2, defining 26 mtDNA lineages; 23.7% of these were present in a single individual. The 9-bp deletion was found in 3.39% of individuals. Nucleotide and haplotype diversities were relatively high compared with other New World populations. The identified sequence haplotypes were classified into four major haplogroups (A–D) according to previous studies, with high frequencies for A (47.46%) and C (49.15%), low frequency for B (3.39%), and an absence of D. Am J Phys Anthropol, 2005. © 2005 Wiley-Liss, Inc.