SEARCH

SEARCH BY CITATION

LITERATURE CITED

  • Allman J. 1977. Evolution of the visual system in the early primates. In: SpragueJM, EpsteinAN, editors. Progress in psychobiology, physiology, and psychology, volume 7. New York: Academic Press. p 153.
  • Allman J. 1982. Reconstructing the evolution of the brain in primates through the use of comparative neurophysiological and neuroanatomical data. In: ArmstrongE, FalkD, editors. Primate brain evolution. New York: Plenum Press. p 1328.
  • Alroy J. 1998. Cope's rule and the dymanics of body mass evolution in North American fossil mammals. Science 280: 731734.
  • Ankel-Simons F. 2000. Primate anatomy. New York: Academic Press.
  • Atsalis S. 1999. Diet of the brown mouse lemur (Microcebus rufus) in Ranomafana National Park, Madagascar. Int J Primatol 20: 193229.
  • Atsalis S, Schmid J, Kappeler PM. 1996. Metrical comparisons of three species of mouse lemur. J Hum Evol 31: 6168.
  • Baron G, Frahm HD, Bhatnagar KP, Stephan H. 1983. Comparison of brain structure volumes in Insectivora and Primates. III. Main olfactory bulb (MOB). J Hirnforsch 24: 551568.
  • Beard KC. 1993. Phylogenetic systematics of the Primatomorpha, with special reference to Dermoptera. In: SzalayFS, NovacekMJ, McKennaMC, editors. Mammal phylogeny: placentals. New York: Springer-Verlag. p 129150.
  • Bloch JI, Boyer DM. 2002. Grasping primate origins. Science 298: 16061610.
  • Braniš M, Burda H. 1994. Visual and hearing biology of shrews. In: MerrittJF, KirklandGL, RoseRK, editors. Advances in the biology of shrews, special publication no. 18. Pittsburgh: Carnegie Museum of Natural History. p 189200.
  • Braune P, Schmidt S, Zimmermann E. 2003. First evidence for a gathering call in a nocturnal solitary ranging primate. Folia Primatol (Basel) 74: 185 [abstract].
  • Buckner CH. 1966. Populations and ecological relationships of shrews in tamarack bogs of southeastern Manitoba. J Mammal 47: 181194.
  • Cant JGH. 1992. Positional behavior and body size of arboreal primates: a theoretical framework for field studies and an illustration of its application. Am J Phys Anthropol 88: 273283.
  • Carson KA, Cole JL, Rose RK. 1994. Ultrastructure of the olfactory epithelium of the short-tailed shrew, Blarina brevicauda. In: MerrittJF, KirklandGL, RoseRK, editors. Advances in the biology of shrews, special publication no. 18. Pittsburgh: Carnegie Museum of Natural History. p 211216.
  • Cartmill M. 1972. Arboreal adaptations and the origin of the order Primates. In: TuttleRH, editor. The functional and evolutionary biology of primates. Chicago: Aldine-Atherton. p 97122.
  • Cartmill M. 1974. Rethinking primate origins. Science 184: 436443.
  • Cartmill M. 1975. Primate origins. Minneapolis: Burgess Publishing.
  • Cartmill M. 1979. The volar skin of primates: its frictional characteristics and their functional significance. Am J Phys Anthropol 50: 497510.
  • Cartmill M. 1982. Basic primatology and prosimian evolution. In: SpencerF, editor. A history of American physical anthropology, 1930–1980. New York: Academic Press. p 147186.
  • Cartmill M. 1985. Climbing. In: HildebrandM, BrambleDM, LiemKF, WakeDB, editors. Functional vertebrate morphology. Cambridge, MA: Belknap Press. p 7388.
  • Cartmill M. 1992. New views on primate origins. Evol Anthropol 1: 105111.
  • Cartmill M, MacPhee RDE. 1980. Tupaiid affinities: the evidence of the carotids and cranial skeleton. In: LuckettWP, editor. Comparative biology and evolutionary relationships of tree shrews. New York: Plenum Press. p 95132.
  • Cawthorn JM. 1994. A live-trapping study of two syntopic species of Sorex, S. cinereus and S. fumeus. In: MerrittJF, KirklandGL, RoseRK, editors. Advances in the biology of shrews, special publication no. 18. Pittsburgh: Carnegie Museum of Natural History. p 3944.
  • Charles-Dominique P, Hladik M. 1971. Le Lépilemur du Sud de Madagascar: écologie, alimentation, et vie sociale. Terre Vie 25: 366.
  • Charles-Dominique P, Martin RD. 1970. Evolution of lorises and lemurs. Nature 227: 257260.
  • Cheney DL, Wrangham RW. 1987. Predation. In: SmutsBB, et al., editors. Primate societies. Chicago: University of Chicago. p 227239.
  • Churchfield S. 1991. Niche dynamics, food resources, and feeding strategies in multispecies communities of shrews. In: FindleyJS, YatesTL, editors. The biology of Soricidae. Special Publications of the Museum of Southwestern Biology no. 1. Albuquerque: University of New Mexico. p 2334.
  • Churchfield S. 1994. Foraging strategies of shrews and the evidence from field studies. In: MerrittJF, KirklandGL, RoseRK, editors. Advances in the biology of shrews, special publication no. 18. Pittsburgh: Carnegie Museum of Natural History. p 7787.
  • Churchfield S. 1996. Ecology of very small terrestrial mammals. Symp Zool Soc Lond 69: 259276.
  • Clutton-Brock TH, Harvey PH. 1977. Primate ecology and social organization. J Zool Lond 183: 139.
  • Clutton-Brock TH, Harvey PH. 1983. The functional significance of variation in body size among mammals. In: EisenbergJF, KleimanDG, editors. Advances in the study of mammalian behavior. Special publication no. 7. Stillwater, OK: American Society of Mammalogy. p 632663.
  • Conroy GC. 1987. Problems of body weight estimation in fossil primates. Int J Primatol 8: 115137.
  • Conroy GC. 1990. Primate evolution. New York: W.W. Norton and Co.
  • Cope ED. 1887. The origin of the fittest. New York: Appleton.
  • Corbin GD, Schmid J. 1995. Insect secretions determine habitat use patterns by a female lesser mouse lemur (Microcebus murinus). Am J Primatol 37: 317324.
  • Cowlishaw G. 1997. Trade-offs between foraging and predation risk determine habitat use in a desert baboon population. Anim Behav 53: 667686.
  • Crompton RH. 1995. “Visual predation,” habitat structure and the ancestral primate niche. In: AltermanL, DoyleGA, IzardMK, editors. Creatures of the dark. New York: Plenum Press. p 1130.
  • Dagosto M. 1983. Postcranium of Adapis parisiensis and Leptadapis magnus (Adapiformes, Primates). Folia Primatol (Basel) 41: 49101.
  • Dagosto M. 1993. Postcranial anatomy and locomotor behavior in Eocene primates. In: GeboDL, editor, Postcranial adaptation in nonhuman primates. DeKalb: Northern Illinois University Press. p 150174.
  • Dagosto M. In press. The postcranial morphotype of primates. In: RavosaMJ, DagostoM, editors. Primate origins and adaptations: a multidisciplinary perspective. New York: Plenum Press.
  • Dagosto M, Terranova CJ. 1992. Estimating the body size of Eocene primates: a comparison of results from dental and postcranial variables. Int J Primatol 13: 307344.
  • Dammhahn M, Kappeler P. 2003. The social system of the world's smallest primate, the pygmy mouse lemur (Microcebus berthae). Folia Primatol (Basel) 74: 188 [abstract].
  • Damuth J, MacFadden BJ. 1990. Body size in mammalian paleobiology. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
  • Dayan T, Simberloff D. 1996. Patterns of size separation in carnivore communities. In: GittlemanJL, editor. Carnivore, behavior, ecology and evolution. Ithaca: Cornell University Press. p 243266.
  • Demes B. 1991. Biomechanische Allometrie: wie die Körpergröße Fortbewegung und Körperform von Primaten bestimmt. Cour Forsch Inst Senckenberg 141: 183.
  • Demes B, Günther MM. 1989. Biomechanics and allometric scaling in primate locomotion and morphology. Folia Primatol (Basel) 53: 125141.
  • Demeter A. 1981. Small mammals and the food of owls (Tyto and Bubo) in northern Nigeria. Vert Hung 20: 127136.
  • Dieterlen F, Hein de Balsac H. 1979. Zur Ökologie und Taxonomie der Spitzmäuse (Soricidae) des Kivu-Gebietes. Saugetierkd Mitt 27: 241287.
  • Doyle GA. 1979. Development of behavior in prosimians with special reference to the lesser bushbaby, Galago senegalensis moholi. In: DoyleGA, MartinRD, editors. The study of prosimian behavior. New York: Academic Press. p 153206.
  • Dunbar DC. 1988. Aerial maneuvers of leaping lemurs: the physics of whole-body rotations while airborne. Am J Primatol 16: 291303.
  • Dunbar DC, Badam GL. 2000. Locomotion and posture during terminal branch feeding. Int J Primatol 21: 649669.
  • Eberle M, Kappeler PM. 2002. Mouse lemurs in space and time: a test of the socioecological model. Behav Ecol Sociobiol 51: 131139.
  • Eisenberg JF. 1975. Phylogeny, behavior and ecology in the Mammalia. In: LuckettWP, SzalayFS, editors. Phylogeny of the primates. New York: Plenum Press. p 4768.
  • Eisenberg JF. 1981. The mammalian radiations. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
  • Eisenberg JF. 1989. Mammals of the Neotropics. Volume 1. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
  • Eisenberg JF, Wilson D. 1981. Relative brain size in didelphid marsupials. Am Nat 118: 110126.
  • Eizirik E, Murphy WJ, Springer MS, O'Brien SJ. 2004. Molecular phylogeny and dating early primate divergences. In: RossCF, KayRF, editors. Anthropoid origins—new visions. New York: Kluwer Acedmic. p 4567.
  • Emmons LH. 2000. Tupai: a field study of Bornean tree shrews. Berkeley: University of California Press.
  • Fietz J. 1998. Body mass in wild Microcebus murinus over the dry season. Folia Primatol (Basel) 69: 183190.
  • Fittkau EJ, Kline H. 1973. On biomass and trophic structure of the central Amazonian rain forest ecosystem. Biotropica 5: 214.
  • Flannery T. 1995. Mammals of New Guinea. Ithaca: Cornell University Press.
  • Fleagle JG. 1978. Size distributions of living and fossil primate faunas. Paleobiology 4: 6776.
  • Fleagle JG. 1985. Size and adaptation in primates. In: JungersWL, editor. Size and scaling in primate biology. New York: Plenum Press. p 119.
  • Fleagle JG. 1999. Primate adaptation and evolution, 2nd ed. New York: Academic Press.
  • Ford EB. 1975. Ecological genetics, 4th ed. London: Chapman and Hall.
  • Ford HD, Ford EB. 1930. Fluctuation in numbers and its influence on variation in Melitaea aurinia. Trans R Ent Lond 78: 345351.
  • Ganzhorn J. 1988. Food partitioning among Malagasy primates. Oecologia 75: 436450.
  • Ganzhorn J. 1989. Niche separation of seven lemur species in the eastern rainforest of Madagascar. Oecologia 79: 279286.
  • Garbutt N. 1999. Mammals of Madagascar. New Haven: Yale University Press.
  • Gautier-Hion A, Gautier JP. 1978. Le singe de Brazza: une stratégie originale. Z Tierpsychol 46: 84104.
  • Gebo DL. 1987. Locomotor diversity in prosimian primates. Am J Primatol 13: 271281.
  • Gebo DL. 1988. Foot morphology and locomotor adaptation in Eocene primates. Folia Primatol (Basel) 50: 341.
  • Gebo DL. 1993. Postcranial adaptation in nonhuman primates. DeKalb: Northern Illinois University Press.
  • Gebo DL. 2002. Adapiformes: phylogeny and adaptation. In: HartwigWC, editor. The primate fossil record. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. p 2143.
  • Gebo DL, Chapman CA. 1995. Positional behavior in five sympatric Old World monkeys. Am J Phys Anthropol 97: 4976.
  • Gebo DL, Dagosto M, Beard KC, Tao Q. 2000. The smallest primates. J Hum Evol 38: 585594.
  • Gebo DL, Dagosto M, Beard KC, Tao Q. 2001. Middle Eocene primate tarsals from China: implications for haplorhine evolution. Am J Phys Anthropol 116: 83107.
  • Génin F. 2001. Gumnivory in mouse lemurs during the dry season in Madagascar. Folia Primatol (Basel) 72: 115127 [abstract].
  • Getz LL. 1994. Population dynamics of the short-tailed shrew, Blarina brevidauda. In: MerrittJF, KirklandGL, RoseRK, editors. Advances in the biology of shrews, special publication no. 18. Pittsburgh: Carnegie Musuem of Natural History. p 2738.
  • Gingerich PD. 1976. Cranial anatomy and evolution of early Tertiary Plesiadapidae (Mammalia, Primates). Ann Arbor, MI: Museum of Paleontology, University of Michigan, no. 15, p 1141.
  • Gingerich PD. 1980. Eocene Adapidae, paleobiogeography, and the origin of South American Platyrrhini. In: CiochonRL, ChiarelliAB, editors. Evolutionary biology of the New World monkeys and continental drift. New York: Plenum Press. p 123138.
  • Gingerich PD. 1981. Early Cenozoic Omomyidae and the evolutionary history of tarsiiform primates. J Hum Evol 10: 345374.
  • Gingerich PD, Uhen MD. 1994. Time of origin of primates. J Hum Evol 27: 443445.
  • Gingerich PD, Dashzeveg D, Russell DE. 1991. Dentition and systematic relationships of Altanius orlovi (Mammalia, Primates) from the early Eocene of Mongolia. Geobios 24: 637646.
  • Gittelman JL. 1985. Carnivore body size: ecological and taxonomic correlates. Oecologia 67: 540554.
  • Godinot M. 1994. Early North African primates and their significance for the orgin of Simiiformes (= Anthropoidea). In: FleagleJG, KayRF, editors. Anthropoid origins. New York: Plenum Press. p 235295.
  • Goodman SM, O'Connor S, Langrand O. 1993. A review of predation on lemurs: implications for the evolution of social behavior in small, nocturnal primates. In: KappelerPM, GanzhornJU, editors. Lemur social systems and their ecological basis. New York: Plenum Press. p 5166.
  • Gould E. 1969. Communication in three genera of shrews (Soricidae): Suncus, Blarina, and Cryptotis. Commun Behav Biol A 3: 1131.
  • Gregory WK. 1920. On the structure and relations of Notharctus, an American Eocene primate. Mem Am Mus Nat Hist 3: 49243.
  • Gunnell GF. 1989. Evolutionary history of Microsyopoidea (Mammalia, ? Primates) and the relationship between Plesiadapiformes and Primates. Ann Arbor, MI: Museum of Paleontology, University of Michigan, no. 27. p 1157.
  • Gunnell GF, Rose KD. 2002. Tarsiiformes: evolutionary history and adaptation. In: HartwigWC, editor. The primate fossil record. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. p 4582.
  • Hafen T, Neveu H, Rumpler Y, Wilden I, Zimmermann E. 1998. Acoustically dimorphic advertisement calls separate morphologically and genetically homogenous populations of the grey mouse lemur (Microcebus murinus). Folia Primatol (Basel) 69: 342356.
  • Hall-Craggs ECB. 1965. An osteometric study of the hind limb of the Galagidae. J Anat 99: 119126.
  • Hall-Craggs ECB. 1966. Rotational movements in the foot of Galago senegalensis. Anat Rec 154: 287294.
  • Hamrick MW. 1998. Functional and adaptive significance of primate pads and claws: evidence for New World anthropoids. Am J Phys Anthropol 106: 113127.
  • Hamrick MW. 2001. Primate origins: evolutionary change in digital ray patterning and segmentation. J Hum Evol 40: 339351.
  • Hanski I. 1994. Population biological consequences of body size in Sorex. In: MerrittJF, KirklandGL, RoseRK, editors. Advances in the biology of shrews, special publication no. 18. Pittsburgh: Carnegie Museum of Natural History. p 1526.
  • Heffner H, Masterton B. 1980. Hearing in Glires: domestic rabbit, cotton rat, feral house mouse, and kangaroo rat. J Acoustic Soc Am 68: 15841599.
  • Heim de Balsac H, Vuattoux R. 1969. Crocidura douceti H. de B. et le comportement arboricole des Soricidae. Mammalia 33: 98101.
  • Hill WCO. 1953. Primates, comparative anatomy and taxonomy, volume 1. Strepsirhini. Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press.
  • Hladik P, Charles-Dominique P, Petter JJ. 1980. Feeding strategies of five nocturnal prosimians in the dry forest of the west coast of Madagascar. In: Charles-DominiqueP, CooperHM, HladlikA, HladlikCM, PagesE, ParienteGF, PetterA, PetterJJ, SchillingA, editors. Nocturnal Malagasy primates: ecology, physiology, and behavior. New York: Academic Press. p 4173.
  • Hutterer R. 1985. Anatomical adaptations of shrews. Mammal Rev 15: 4355.
  • Hutterer R, Vogel P. 1977. Abwehrlaute afrikanischer Spitzmäuse der Gattung Crocidura Wagler, 1832 und ihre systematische Bedeutung. Bonner Zool Beitr 28: 218277.
  • Innes DGL. 1994. Life histories of the Soricidae: a review. In: MerrittJF, KirklandGL, RoseRK, editors. Advances in the biology of shrews, special publication no. 18. Pittsburgh: Carnegie Museum of Natural History. p 111136.
  • Isbell LA. 1994. Predation on primates: ecological patterns and evolutionary consequences. Evol Anthropol 3: 6171.
  • Ivanter EV, Ivanter TV, Makarow AM. 1994. The territorial and demographic structures of a common shrew population. In: MerrittJF, KirklandGL, RoseRK, editors. Advances in the biology of shrews, special publication no. 18. Pittsburgh: Carnegie Museum of Natural History. p 8996.
  • Jenkins FA. 1974. Tree shrew locomotion and the origins of primate arborealism. In: JenkinsFA, editor. Primate locomotion. New York: Academic Press. p 85115.
  • Jerison HJ. 1979. Brain, body and encephalization in early primates. J Hum Evol 8: 615635.
  • Jones FW. 1916. Arboreal man. London: Arnold.
  • Jungers WL. 1985a. Size and scaling in primate biology. New York: Plenum Press.
  • Jungers WL. 1985b. Body size and scaling of limb proportions in primates. In: JungersWL, editor. Size and scaling in primate biology. New York: Plenum Press. p 345382.
  • Kaikusalo A, Tast J. 1994. Latitudinal variation in the llife histories of Sorex araneus and S. caecutiens in Finland. In: MerrittJF, KirklandGL, RoseRK, editors. Advances in the biology of shrews, special publication no. 18. Pittsburgh: Carnegie Museum of Natural History. p 114.
  • Kay RF. 1984. On the use of anatomical features to infer foraging behavior in extinct primates. In: CantJ, RodmanP, editors. Adaptations for foraging in nonhuman primates. New York: Columbia University Press. p 2153.
  • Kay RF, Cartmill M. 1977. Cranial morphology and adaptation of Palaechthon nacimienti and other Paromomyidae (Plesiadapoidea, Primates), with a description of a new genus and species. J Hum Evol 6: 1953.
  • Kenagy GJ, Trombulak SC. 1986. Size and function of mammalian testes in relation to body size. J Mammal 15: 4355.
  • Kingdon J. 1974. East African mammals, an atlas of evolution in Africa, volume IIA. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
  • Kingdon J. 1997. The Kingdon field guide to African mammals. London: Academic Press.
  • Kirk EC, Cartmill M, Kay RF, Lemelin P. 2003. Comment on “grasping primate origins”. Science 300: 741.
  • Kirkland GL. 1991. Competition and coexistence in shrews (Insectivora: Soricidae). In: FindleyJS, YatesTL, editors. The biology of Soricidae. Albuquerque, NM: University of New Mexico Press. Special publications of the Museum of Southwestern Biology, no. 1. p 1522.
  • Kleiber M. 1932. Body size and metabolism. Hilgardia 6: 315353.
  • Kleiber M. 1961. The fire of life—an introduction to animal energetics. New York: John Wiley and Sons.
  • Krause DW. 1984. Mammalian evolution in the Paleocene: the beginning of an era. In: BroadheadTD, editor. Mammals: notes for a short course. Knoxville: University of Tennessee. p 87109.
  • Krause DW, Maas MC. 1990. The biogeographic origins of late Paleocene–early Eocene mammalian immigrants to the Western Interior of North America. In: BownTM, RoseKD, editors. Dawn of the age of mammals in the northern part of the Rocky Mountain Interior, North America. Special paper 243. Boulder, CO: Geological Society of America. p 71105.
  • Lack D. 1954. The natural regulation of animal numbers. Oxford: Clarendon Press.
  • Lack D. 1966. Population studies of birds. Oxford: Clarendon Press.
  • Larson SG. 1998. Unique aspects of quadrupedal locomotion in nonhuman primates. In: StrasserE, FleagleJ, RosenbergerA, McHenryH, editors. Primate locomotion: recent advances. New York: Plenum Press. p 157173.
  • Larson SG, Schmitt D, Lemelin P, Hamrick M. 2000. Uniqueness of primate forelimb posture during quadrupedal locomotion. Am J Phys Anthropol 112: 87101.
  • Larson SG, Schmitt D, Lemelin P, Hamrick M. 2001. Limb excursion during quadrupedal walking: how do primates compare to other mammals? J Zool Lond 255: 353365.
  • Lebec A. 1984. Relation entre le comportement agressif du Microcèbe mâle, les autres comportements et la physiologie secuelle. Rôle de quelques facteurs déterminants. Thèse 3ème cycle, Paris Université VI.
  • LeGros Clark WE. 1926. On the anatomy of the pen-tailed tree shrew (Ptilocercus lowii). Proc Zool Soc Lond 1926: 11791309.
  • LeGros Clark WE. 1932. The brain of the Insectivora. Proc Zool Soc Lond 1932: 9751013.
  • LeGros Clark WE. 1934. Early forerunners of man. Baltimore: William Wood.
  • LeGros Clark WE. 1959. The antecedents of man: an introduction to the evolution of primates. London: British Museum of Natural History.
  • Lemelin P. 1999. Morphological correlates of substrate use in didelphid marsupials: implications for primate origins. J Zool Lond 247: 1765175.
  • Lemelin P, Grafton BW. 1998. Grasping performance in Saguinus midas and the evolution of hand prehensility in primates. In: StrasserE, FleagleJG, RosenbergerAL, McHenryHM, editors. Primate locomotion: recent advances. New York: Plenum Press. p 131144.
  • Luckett WP. 1968. Morphogenesis of the fetal membranes and placenta of the tree shrews (family Tupaiidae). Am J Anat 123: 385428.
  • Luckett WP. 1980. The use of reproductive and development features in assessing Tupaiid affinities. In: LuckettWP, editor. Comparative biology and evolutionary relationships of tree shrews. New York: Plenum Press. p 245268.
  • MacArthur RH, Wilson EO. 1967. The theory of island biogeography. Princeton: Princeton University Press.
  • MacPhee RDE. 1977. Auditory regions of stepsirhine primates, tree shrews, elephant shrews, and lipotyphlous insectivores: an ontogenetic perspective on character analysis. Ph.D. thesis, Department of Anthropology, University of Alberta.
  • Madsen O, Scally M, Douady CJ, Kao DJ, DeBry RW, Adkins R, Amrine HM, Stanhope MJ, de Jong WW, Springer MS. 2001. Parallel adaptive radiations in two major clades of placental mammals. Nature 409: 610614.
  • Martin RD. 1967. Behavior and taxonomy of tree shrews (Tupaiidae). Ph.D. thesis, Department of Anthropology, Oxford University.
  • Martin RD. 1968. Towards a new definition of primates. Man 3: 377401.
  • Martin RD. 1969. The evolution of reproductive mechanisms in primates. J Reprod Fertil [ Suppl] 6: 4966.
  • Martin RD. 1972a. Adaptive radiation and behavior of the Malagasy lemurs. Philos Trans R Soc Lond [Biol] 264: 295352.
  • Martin RD. 1972b. A preliminary field study of the lesser mouse lemur (Microcebus murinus J.F. Miller 1777). In: Charles-DominiqueP, MartinRD, editors. Behaviour and ecology of nocturnal prosimians. Berlin: Verlag Paul Parey. p 4389.
  • Martin RD. 1973. A review of the behavior and ecology of the lesser mouse lemur (Microcebus murinus). In: CrookM, editor. Ecology and behavior of primates. London: Academic Press. p 168.
  • Martin RD. 1984. Scaling effects and adaptive strategies in mammalian lactation. Symp Zool Soc Lond 51: 87117.
  • Martin RD. 1986. Primates: a definition. In: WoodB, MartinL, AndrewsP, editors. Major topics in primate and human evolution. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. p 131.
  • Martin RD. 1990. Primate origins and evolution—a phylogenetic reconstruction. Princeton: Princeton University Press.
  • Martin RD. 1993. Primate origins: plugging the gaps. Nature 363: 223234.
  • Martin RD. 1995. Prosimians: from obscurity to extinction? In: AltermanL, DoyleGA, IzardMK, editors. Creatures of the dark: the nocturnal prosimians. New York: Plenum Press. p 535564.
  • Martin RD, MacLarnon AM. 1985. Gestation period, neonatal size and maternal investment in placental mammals. Nature 313: 220223.
  • Martin RD, MacLarnon AM. 1988. Comparative quantitative studies of growth and reproduction. Symp Zool Soc Lond 60: 3980.
  • Martinsen DL. 1969. Energetic and activity patterns of short-tailed shrews (Blarina) on restricted diets. Ecology 50: 505510.
  • McKenna MC. 1966. Paleontology and the origin of the primates. Folia Primatol (Basel) 4: 125.
  • McLellan LJ. 1994. Evolution and phylogenetic affinities of the African species of Crocidura, Suncus, and Sylvisorex (Insectivora: Soricidae). In: MerrittJF, KirklandGL, RoseRK, editors. Advances in the biology of shrews, special publication no. 18. Pittsburgh: Carnegie Museum of Natural History. p 379385.
  • McNab B. 1980. Food habits, energetics, and the population biology of mammals. Am Nat 116: 106124.
  • McNab B. 1983. Energetics, body size, and the limits to endothermy. J Zool Lond 199: 129.
  • McNab B. 1991. The energy expenditure of shrews. In: FindleyJS, YatesTL, editors. The biology of Soricidae, special publication no. 1. Albuquerque: Museum of Southwestern Biology. p 3545.
  • MerrittJF, KirklandGL, RoseRK, editors. 1994. Advances in the biology of shrews, special publication no. 18. Pittsburgh: Carnegie Museum of Natural History.
  • Mittermeier RA, Tattersall I, Konstant WR, Meyers DM, Mast RB. 1994. Lemurs of Madagascar. Washington, DC: Conservation International.
  • Moraleva N, Telitzina A. 1994. Territoriality in juveniles of the common shrew (Sorex araneus) in prepeak and peak years of population density. In: MerrittJF, KirklandGL, RoseRK, editors. Advances in the biology of shrews, special publication no. 18. Pittsburgh: Carnegie Museum of Natural History. p 6776.
  • Morton D. 1924. Evolution of the human foot (II). Am J Phys Anthropol 7: 152.
  • Müller AE, Thalmann URS. 2000. Origin and evolution of primate social organization: a reconstruction. Biol Rev 75: 405435.
  • Nagel A. 1994. Metabolic rates and regulation of cardiac and respiratory function in European shrews. In: MerrittJF, KirklandGL, RoseRK, editors. Advances in the biology of shrews, special publication no. 18. Pittsburgh: Carnegie Museum of Natural History. p 421434.
  • Napier JR, Napier PH. 1967. A handbook of living primates. New York: Academic Press.
  • Ni X, Wang Y, Hu Y, Li C. 2003. A euprimate skull from the early Eocene of China. Nature 427: 6568.
  • Nowak RM, Paradiso JL. 1983. Walker's mammals of the world, 4th ed. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press.
  • Ostner J. 2002. Social thermoregulation in redfronted lemurs (Eulemur fulvus rufus). Folia Primatol (Basel) 73: 175180.
  • Pages-Feuillade E. 1988. Modalités de l'occupation de l'espace et relations interindividuelles chez un prosimien nocturne Malagache (Microcebus murinus). Folia Primatol (Basel) 50: 204220.
  • Payne J, Francis CM, Phillipps K. 1985. A field guide to the mammals of Borneo. Kuala Lumpur: Sabah Society.
  • Perret M. 1982. Influence du groupement social sur la reproduction de la femelle de Microcebus murinus [Miller, 1777]. Z Tierpsychol 60: 4765.
  • Perret M. 1998. Energetic advantage of nest-sharing in a solitary primate, the lesser mouse lemur (Microcebus murinus). J Mammal 79: 10931102.
  • Petter JJ. 1962. Recherches sur l'écologie et l'éthologie des lémuriens malaches. Mem Mus Hist Nat A (Zool) 27: 1146.
  • Petter JJ, Albignac R, Rumpler Y. 1977. Mammifères lémuriens (Primates Prosimiens). Faune Madagascar 44: 1513.
  • Radespiel U. 2000. Sociality in the gray mouse lemur (Microcebus murinus) in northwestern Madagascar. Am J Primatol 51: 2140.
  • Radespiel U, Cepok S, Zimmermann E, Zietemann V. 1998. Sex-specific usage patterns of sleeping-sites in grey mouse lemurs (Microcebus murinus) in northwestern Madagascar. Am J Primatol 46: 7784.
  • Radespiel U, Ehresmann P, Zimmermann E. 2001a. Contest versus scramble competition for mates: the composition and spatial structure of a population of gray mouse lemurs (Microcebus murinus) in north-west Madagascar. Primates 42: 207220.
  • Radespiel U, Sarikaya Z, Zimmermann E, Bruford MW. 2001b. Sociogenetic structure in a free-living nocturnal primate population: sex-specific differences in the grey mouse lemur (Microcebus murinus). Behav Ecol Sociobiol 50: 493502.
  • Radespiel U, Ehresmann P, Zimmermann E. 2003. Species-specific usage of sleeping sites in two sympatric mouse lemur species (Microcebus murinus and M. ravelobenis) in northwestern Madagascar. Am J Primatol 59: 139151.
  • Rakotoarison N, Zimmermann H, Zimmermann E. 1996. First discovery of the hairy-eared dwarf lemur (Allocebus trichotis) in a highland rain forest of eastern Madagascar. Folia Primatol (Basel) 68: 8694.
  • Rasmussen DR. 1983. Correlates of patterns of range use of a troop of yellow baboons (Papio cynocephalus). II. Spatial structure, cover density, food gathering, and individual behaviour patterns. Anim Behav 31: 834856.
  • Rasmussen DT. 1990. Primate origins: lessons from a neotropical marsupial. Am J Primatol 22: 263277.
  • Rasmussen DT, Conroy GC, Simons EL. 1998. Tarsier-like locomotor specializations in the Oligocene primate Afrotarsius. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 95: 1484814850.
  • Rasoloarison RM, Goodman SM, Ganzhorn JU. 2000. Taxonomic revision of mouse lemurs (Microcebus) in the western portions of Madagascar. Int J Primatol 21: 9611019.
  • Ravosa MJ, Savakova DG. 2004. Euprimate origins: the eyes have it. J Hum Evol 46: 357364.
  • Ray JC. 1998. Temporal variation of predation on rodents and shrews by small African forest carnivores. J Zool Lond 244: 363370.
  • Ray JC, Hutterer R. 1995. Structure of a shrew community in Central African Republic based on the analysis of carnivore scats, with the description of a new Sylvisorex (Mammalis, Soricidae). Ecotropica 1: 8597.
  • Reed KE. 1999. Population density of primates in communities: differences in community structure. In: FleagleJG, JansonC, ReedKE, editors. Primate communities. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. p 116140.
  • Reimann W, Radespiel U, Zimmermann E. 2003. Feeding regimes of two sympatric mouse lemurs in north-western Madagascar (Microcebus murinus and M. ravelobensis): no clear evidence for niche separation. Folia Primatol (Basel) 74: 215126 [abstract].
  • Rendigs A, Radespiel U, Wrogemann D, Zimmermann E. 2003. Relationship between microhabitat structure and distribution of mouse lemurs (Microcebus spp.) in northwestern Madagascar. Int J Primatol 24: 4764.
  • Rose KD, Walker AC. 1985. The skeleton of early Cantius, oldest lemuriform primate. Am J Phys Anthropol 66: 7389.
  • Rose M. 1974. Postural adaptation in New and Old World monkeys. In: JenkinsFA, editor. Primate locomotion. New York: Academic Press. p 201222.
  • Rose RK. 1994. Soricid biology: a summary and a look ahead. In MerrittJF, KirklandGL, RoseRK, editors. Advances in the biology of shrews, special publication no. 18. Pittsburgh: Carnegie Museum of Natural History. p 455458.
  • Sargis EJ. 2001. The grasping behaviour, locomotion and substrate use of the tree shrews Tupaia minor and T. tana (Mammalia, Scandentia). J Zool Lond 253: 485490.
  • Sargis EJ. 2002a. Functional morphology of the forelimb of tupaiids (Mammalia, Scandentia) and its phylogenetic implications. J Morphol 253: 1042.
  • Sargis EJ. 2002b. Functional morphology of the hindlimb of tupaiids (Mammalia, Scandentia) and its phylogenetic implications. J Morphol 254: 149185.
  • Sargis EJ. 2004. New views on tree shrews: the role of tupaiids in primate supraordinal relationships. Evol Anthrool 13: 5666.
  • Schmelting B, Ehresmann P, Lutermann H, Randrianambinina B, Zimmermann E. 2000. Reproduction of two sympatric mouse lemur species (Microcebus murinus and M. ravelobensis) in north-west Madagascar: first results of a long term study. In: LourencoWR, GoodmanSM, editors. Diversité et endémisme à Madagascar. Paris: Mémoires de la Société de Biogeography. p 165175.
  • Schmid J. 1997. Torpor beim grauen Mausmaki (Microcebus murinus) in Madagaskar: energetishe Konsequenzen und ökologische Bedeutung. Ph.D. dissertation, Tübingen University.
  • Schmid J. 2000. Daily torpor in the gray mouse lemur (Microcebus murinus) in Madagascar: energetic consequences and biological significance. Oecologia 123: 175183.
  • Schmid J, Kappeler PM. 1998. Fluctuating sexual dimorphism and differential hibernation by sex in a primate, the gray mouse lemur (Microcebus murinus) Behav Ecol Sociobiol 43: 125132.
  • Schmid J, Speakman JR. 2000. Daily energy expenditure of the grey mouse lemur (Microcebus murinus): a small primate that uses torpor. J Comp Physiol [B] 170: 633641.
  • Schmid J, Ruf T, Heldmaier G. 2000. Metabolism and temperature regulation during daily torpor in the smallest primate, the pygmy mouse lemur (Microcebus myoxinus) in Madagascar. J Comp Physiol [B] 170: 6869.
  • Schmitt D. 1995. A kinematic and kinetic analysis of forelimb use during arboreal and terrestrial quadrupedalism in Old World monkeys. Ph.D. dissertation, SUNY at Stony Brook.
  • Schmitt D, Hanna JB. 2004. Substrate alters forelimb to hindlimb peak force ratios in primates. J Hum Evol 46: 239254.
  • Schmitt D, Lemelin P. 2002. Origins of primate locomotion: gait mechanics of the woolly opossum. Am J Phys Anthropol 118: 231238.
  • Schwab D. 2000. A preliminary study of spatial distribution and mating system of pygmy mouse lemurs (Microcebus cf. myoxinus). Am J Primatol 51: 4160.
  • Schwab D, Ganzhorn JU. 2004. Distribution, population structure and habitat use of Microcebus berthae compared to those of other sympatric cheirogaleids. Int J Primatol 25: 307330.
  • Shea BT. 1987. Reproductive strategies, body size, and encephalization in primate evolution. Int J Primatol 8: 139156.
  • Silcox MT. 2003. New discoveries on the middle ear anatomy of Ignacius graybullianus (Paromomyidae, Primates) from ultra high resolution X-ray computed tomography. J Hum Evol 44: 7386.
  • Simons EL, Rasmussen DT. 1994. A whole new world of ancestors: anthropoideans from Africa. Evol Anthropol 3: 128139.
  • Simpson GG. 1940. The studies of the earliest primates. Bull Am Mus Nat Hist 77: 185212.
  • Sinclair ARE, Mduma S, Brashares JS. 2003. Patterns of predation in a diverse predator-prey system. Nature 425: 288290.
  • Smith A, Lee A. 1984. The evolution of strategies for survival and reproduction in possums and gliders. In: SmithA, HumeI, editors. Possums and gliders. Chipping Norton, Australia: Surrey Beatty and Sons. p 1733.
  • Smith GE. 1924. The evolution of man. London: Oxford University Press.
  • Smuts BB, Cheney DL, Seyfarth RM, Wrangham RW, Struhsaker T. 1987. Primate societies. Chicago: Chicago University Press.
  • Stafford BJ, Thorington RW Jr. 1998. Carpal development and morphology in archontan mammals. J Morphol 235: 135155.
  • Stanley SM. 1973. An explanation for Cope's rule. Evolution 27: 126.
  • Stockley P, Searle JB. 1994. Characterisitcs of the breeding season in the common shrew (Sorex araneus): male sexual maturation, morphology and mobility. In: MerrittJF, KirklandGL, RoseRK, editors. Advances in the biology of shrews, special publication no. 18. Pittsburgh: Carnegie Museum of Natural History. p 181188.
  • Stoddart DM. 1979. Ecology of small mammals. London: Chapman and Hall.
  • Stork NE. 1991. The composition of the arthropod fauna of Bornean lowland rain forest trees. J Trop Ecol 7: 161180.
  • Strait S. 2001. Dietary reconstruction of small-bodied omomyoid primates. J Vert Paleontol 21: 322334.
  • Stranger KF. 1995. Vocalizations of some cheirogaleid prosimians evaluated in a phylogenetic context. In: AltermanL, DoyleGA, Izard, MK, editors. Creatures of the dark. New York: Plenum Press. p 353376.
  • Strasser E, Dagosto M. 1988. The primate postcranial skeleton. New York: Academic Press.
  • Sussman RW. 1991. Primate origins and the evolution of angiosperms. Am J Primatol 23: 209223.
  • Sussman RW. 1999. Primate ecology and social structure, volume 1: lorises, lemurs and tarsiers. Needham Heights, MA: Pearson Custom Publishing.
  • Szalay FS. 1968. The beginnings of primates. Evolution 22: 1936.
  • Szalay FS. 1969. Mixodectidae, Microsyopidae, and the insectivore-primate transition. Bull Am Mus Nat Hist 140: 193330.
  • Szalay FS. 1972. Paleobiology of the earliest primates. In: TuttleRH, editor. The functional and evolutionary biology of primates. Chicago: Aldine. p 335.
  • Szalay FS. 1976. Systematics of the Omomyidae (Tarsiiformes, Primates): taxonomy, phylogeny, and adaptations. Bull Am Mus Nat Hist 156: 157450.
  • Szalay FS, Dagosto M. 1980. Locomotor adaptations as reflected in the humerus of Paleogene primates. Folia Primatol (Basel) 34: 145.
  • Szalay FS, Dagosto M. 1988. Evolution of hallucial grasping in the primates. J Hum Evol 17: 133.
  • Szalay FS, Delson E. 1979. Evolutionary history of the primates. New York: Academic Press.
  • Szalay FS, Drawhorn G. 1980. Evolution and diversification of the Archonta in an arboreal milieu. In: LuckettWP, editor. Comparative biology and evolutionary relationships of tree shrews. New York: Plenum Press. p 133169.
  • Szalay FS, Tattersall I, Decker RL. 1975. Phylogenetic relationships of Plesiadapis—postcranial evidence. In: SzalayFS, editor. Approaches to primate paleobiology, contributions to primatology. Volume 5. Basal: S. Karger. p 137166.
  • Tattersall I. 1982. The primates of Madagascar. New York: Columbia University Press.
  • Tavaré S, Marshall CR, Will O, Soligo C, Martin RD. 2002. Using the fossil record to estimate the age of the last common ancestor of extant primates. Nature 416: 726729.
  • Terborgh J. 1983. Five New World primates: a study in comparative ecology. Princeton: Princeton University Press.
  • Terborgh J. 1986. The social systems of New World primates: an adaptionist view. In: ElseJG, LeePC, editors. Primate ecology and conservation. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. p 199211.
  • Tetreault N, Hakeem A, Allman JM. 2004. The distribution and size of retinal ganglion cells in Microcebus murinus, Cheirogaleis medius, and Tarsius syrichta: implications for the evolution of sensory systems in primates. In: RossCF, KayRF, editors. Anthropoid origins—new visions. New York: Kluwer Academic. p 463475.
  • Van Schaik CP, van Hooff JARAM. 1983. On the ultimate causes of primate social systems. Behavior 85: 91117.
  • Van Valen L. 1965. Tree shrews, primates, and fossils. Evolution 19: 137151.
  • Vernon P. 1971. An analysis of owl pellets collected in southern Africa. Ostrich 43: 118125.
  • Vogel P. 1974. Note sur le comportement arboricole de Sylvisorex megalura (Soricidae, Insectivora). Mammalia 38: 171176.
  • Walker A. 1979. Prosimian locomotor behavior. In: DoyleGA, MartinRD, editors. The study of prosimian behavior. New York: Academic Press. p 543565.
  • Waser PM. 1987. Interactions among primate species. In: SmutsBB, et al., editors. Primate societies. Chicago: University of Chicago. p 210226.
  • Weidt A, Hagenah N, Randrianambinina B, Radespiel U, Zimmermann E. 2004. Social organization of the golden brown mouse lemur (Microcebus ravelobensis). Am J Phys Anthropol 123: 4051.
  • Western D. 1979. Size, life history and ecolgy in mammals. Afr J Ecol 17: 185204.
  • Wible JR, Covert HH. 1987. Primates: cladistic diagnosis and relationships. J Hum Evol 16: 122.
  • Wrogemann D, Radespiel U, Zimmermann E. 2001. Comparison of reproductive characteristics and changes in body weight between captive populations of rufous and gray mouse lemurs. Int J Primatol 22: 91108.
  • Yoder AD, Rasoloarison RM, Goodman SM, Irwin JA, Atsalis S, Ravosa MJ, Ganzhorn JU. 2000. Remarkable species diversity in Malagasy mouse lemurs (Primates, Microcebus). Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 97: 1132511330.
  • Zachos J, Pagani M, Sloan L, Thomas E, Billups K. 2001. Trends, rhythms, and aberrations in global climate 65 Ma to present. Science 292: 686693.
  • Zimmermann E. 1995. Acoustic communication in nocturnal prosimians. In: AltermanL, DoyleGA, IzardMK, editors. Creatures of the dark. New York: Plenum Press. p 311330.
  • Zimmermann E, Hafen TG. 2001. Colony specificity in a social call of mouse lemurs (Microcebus spp.). Am J Primatol 54: 129141.
  • Zimmermann E, Cepok S, Rakotoarison N, Zietemann V, Radespiel U. 1998. Sympatric mouse lemurs in north-west Madagascar: a new rufous mouse lemur species (Microcebus ravelobensis). Folia Primatol (Basel) 69: 106114.
  • Zimmermann E, Vorobieva E, Wrogemann D, Hafen T. 2000. Use of vocal fingerprinting for specific discrimination of gray (Microcebus murinus) and rufous mouse lemurs (Microcebus rufus). Int J Primatol 21: 837852.