Dento-alveolar pathologies and alterations (dental wear, caries, abscesses, ante mortem tooth loss (AMTL), calculus, hypoplastic defects, and chipping) and skeletal markers of health (cribra orbitalia and periostitis) were analyzed in two skeletal samples from the necropolises of Quadrella (I–IV c. AD) and Vicenne-Campochiaro (VII c. AD) in the Molise region of central Italy. The aim was to determine if the Roman Imperial Age-Early Middle Ages transition characterized by political, socioeconomic, and cultural transformations affected the biology of these populations, particularly their alimentation and health status. The frequencies of caries and AMTL, similar in the two samples, suggest a high consumption of carbohydrates. The higher levels of heavy wear, calculus, and interproximal chipping in the Vicenne population indicate a greater use of fibrous foods (both meat and others), in line with the dietary model of Germanic peoples. Health conditions do not appear to have been good in either period, as shown by the high frequencies of linear hypoplasia and the presence of cribra orbitalia and periostitis. The diet of the individuals buried with horses of the Vicenne population did not differ from that of the rest of the population, whereas there were evident differences in the use of the teeth for nonmasticatory activities among these individuals. Therefore, from the point of view of alimentation and health status, the profound socioeconomic and cultural transformations during the Late Antiquity-Early Middle Ages transition do not seem to have been translated into a true discontinuity of the two Molisan populations. Am J Phys Anthropol, 2007. © 2006 Wiley-Liss, Inc.