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Keywords:

  • Neandertals;
  • Iberia;
  • postcrania;
  • taphonomy;
  • carnivores

Abstract

Ongoing excavations in the Middle Paleolithic levels at the Gruta da Oliveira, Portugal have yielded four fragmentary human remains, a manual phalanx and an ulna from levels 9 and 10, and a humerus and a tibia from levels 18 and 19. The first two remains date to ≈39 ka 14C BP (≈43.5 ka cal BP), whereas the latter two derive from earlier in oxygen isotope stage 3. The preserved portions of the phalanx, humerus, and tibia align them morphologically with the Neandertals. In addition, the Oliveira 4 tibial diaphysis shows evidence of carnivore (probably canid) gnawing. Am J Phys Anthropol 2007. © 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc.