Pliopithecus (Pliopithecus) canmatensis sp. nov. is described from several Late Aragonian localities from Abocador de Can Mata (ACM) in els Hostalets de Pierola (Vallès-Penedès Basin, Catalonia, Spain), spanning from ∼11.7 to 11.6 Ma (C5r.3r subchron), and being correlated to the MN8 (reference locality La Grive L3). The ACM remains display a pliopithecine dental morphology with well-developed pliopithecine triangles on M/2 and M/3. This, together with other occlusal details, negates an attribution to the subgenus Epipliopithecus. Although slightly smaller, the ACM remains are most similar in size to comparable elements of P. piveteaui and P. antiquus. Several occlusal details (such as the greater development of the buccal cingulid in lower molars) and dental proportions (M/3 much longer than M/2), however, indicate greater similarities with P. antiquus from Sansan and La Grive. The ACM remains, however, differ from P. antiquus in dental proportions as well as occlusal morphology of the lower molars (including the less peripheral position of the protoconid and more medial position of the hypoconulid, the more mesial position of the buccal cuspids as compared to the lingual ones, the narrower but distinct mesial fovea, the higher trigonid, and the more extensive buccal cingulid, among others). These differences justify a taxonomic distinction at the species level of the ACM pliopithecid remains with respect to P. antiquus. Previous pliopithecid findings from the Vallès-Penedès Basin, previously attributed to P. antiquus, are neither attributable to the latter species nor to the newly erected one. Am J Phys Anthropol, 2010. © 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc.