The authors Kijeong Kim and Charles H. Brenner contributed equally to this work.
A western Eurasian male is found in 2000-year-old elite Xiongnu cemetery in Northeast Mongolia
Article first published online: 20 JAN 2010
Copyright © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
American Journal of Physical Anthropology
Volume 142, Issue 3, pages 429–440, July 2010
How to Cite
Kim, K., Brenner, C. H., Mair, V. H., Lee, K.-H., Kim, J.-H., Gelegdorj, E., Batbold, N., Song, Y.-C., Yun, H.-W., Chang, E.-J., Lkhagvasuren, G., Bazarragchaa, M., Park, A.-J., Lim, I., Hong, Y.-P., Kim, W., Chung, S.-I., Kim, D.-J., Chung, Y.-H., Kim, S.-S., Lee, W.-B. and Kim, K.-Y. (2010), A western Eurasian male is found in 2000-year-old elite Xiongnu cemetery in Northeast Mongolia. Am. J. Phys. Anthropol., 142: 429–440. doi: 10.1002/ajpa.21242
- Issue published online: 7 JUN 2010
- Article first published online: 20 JAN 2010
- Manuscript Accepted: 3 NOV 2009
- Manuscript Received: 1 JUL 2009
- National Museum of Korea
- Korea Research Foundation (KRF). Grant Number: 2009-0073831
Additional Supporting Information may be found in the online version of this article.
|AJPA_21242_sm_suppinfofigureS1.doc||986K||Figure S1. The ancient skulls excavated from 2000-year-old elite Xiongnu cemetery in northeast Mongolia. (A) The skull of MNX3 West Eurasian male. (B) The skull of MNX4 female|
|AJPA_21242_sm_suppinfofigureS2.doc||708K||Figure S2. Neighbor-joining tree constructed with a total of 8424 concatenated unambiguous HV2 (NP 47-360) and HV1 (NP 16024-16380) control region sequences of mtDNA to search for proximate sequences to the ancient Mongolian mtDNA sequences.|
|AJPA_21242_sm_suppinfofigureS3.doc||165K||Figure S3. Ancient mtDNA amplification plots for the quantification. (A) Amplification plot of 10-fold serial dilutions (from 5 × 105 to 50 copies) of mtDNA 440 bp amplicon standard and the standard curve (B) Amplification plot of 10-fold serial dilutions (from 5 × 105 to 50 copies) of 221 bp amplicon standard and the standard curve (C) MtDNA 440 bp amplication plot with MNX3 ancient samples. (D) Melting curve analysis of mtDNA 440 bp amplicons for the identification. (E) MtDNA 221 bp amplicon plot with MNX3 ancient samples. (F) Melting curve analysis of mtDNA 221 bp amplicons. Note that the copy numbers of 22l bp amplicons are 22-36 times higher than those of 440 bp amplicons with earlier amplifications.|
|AJPA_21242_sm_suppinfofigureS4.doc||827K||Figure S4. Amplification of ancient horse mtDNA. (A) Agarose gel electrophoresis analysis of PCR-amplified mtDNA from genomic DNA extracts from a horse skeleton (the last molar on the left side of lower jaw) excavated together with ancient human skeletons of tomb No. 2. Predicted horse mtDNA PCR products were successfully obtained only with primers designed for the amplification of a horse mtDNA D-loop fragment (368 bp) from the two independent horse aDNA extracts (2 μl) (left lanes 1-4), whereas no amplifiable products were observed with primers for human mtDNA HV1 (F15971/R16410) from those under the same condition (right lanes 1-4). Primers used for the horse mtDNA: forward, 5′-CAA CAC CCA AAG CTG AAA TTC TAC-3′; reverse, 5′-GGA GCG AGG ATT GGG ACA C-3′. Lane M, 100-bp DNA size standards; lane 1, tooth extract No. 1; lane 2, replicate of tooth extract No. 1; lane 3, tooth extract No. 2; lane 4, replicate of tooth extract No. 2; lane DW, distilled water. (B) DNA sequence profile of mtDNA fragment amplified from DNA extracts from ancient horse skeletons (lane 1 and 3).|
|AJPA_21242_sm_suppinfofigureS5.tif||867K||Figure S5. Y-chromosome haplogroup (Hg) determination of ancient sample MNX3 by sequencing. Arrows indicate haplogroup specific mutation position. Big arrows indicate the haplogroup determining change.|
|AJPA_21242_sm_suppinfofigureS6.tif||766K||Figure S6. Y-chromosome haplogroup (Hg) determination of ancient sample MNX2 by sequencing. Arrows indicate haplogroup specific mutation position. Big arrows indicate the haplogroup determining change.|
|AJPA_21242_sm_suppinfotableS1.doc||35K||Table S1. Metric Cranial Traits: Ancient human skulls of Duurlig Nars, Mongolia|
|AJPA_21242_sm_suppinfotableS2.xls||36K||Table S2. MtDNA sequences proximate to ancient Mongolian DNA sample MNX3 West Eurasian male based on the NJ tree constructed with 8424 partial mtDNA HV1 and HV2 concatenated sequences|
|AJPA_21242_sm_suppinfotableS3.xls||35K||Table S3. MtDNA sequences proximate to ancient Mongolian DNA sample MNX2 male based on the NJ tree constructed with 8424 partial mtDNA HV1 and HV2 concatenated sequences|
|AJPA_21242_sm_suppinfotableS4.xls||37K||Table S4. MtDNA sequences proximate to ancient Mongolian DNA sample MNX4 female based on the NJ tree constructed with 8424 partial mtDNA HV1 and HV2 concatenated sequences|
|AJPA_21242_sm_suppinfotableS5.doc||49K||Table S5. mtDNA sequences matching with ancient samples at the highest similarity level|
|AJPA_21242_sm_suppinfotableS6.doc||30K||Table S6. MtDNA real-time PCR quantification results of ancient DNA extracts|
|AJPA_21242_sm_suppinfotableS7.doc||45K||Table S7. Nucleotide sequence comparison of clones obtained from amplified ancient mtDNA HV1 fragments with the sequence determined by direct amplicon sequencing|
|AJPA_21242_sm_suppinfotableS8.xls||20K||Table S8. Genotypes of all reseachers involved in processing samples|
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