The distribution of subvertical grooves on interproximal wear dental facets from the El Sidrón (Asturias, Spain) Neandertals is described and analyzed. Out of 93 teeth, 64.5% present subvertical grooves, including a high frequency (50%) on the anterior dentition. Contrary to some studies, subvertical grooves from adjacent facets perfectly overlap each other and do not interdigitate, probably forming small channels. Both the facet and the groove surface share the same polished appearance, suggesting a common origin. Statistical analyses reveal that the number of grooves is neither dependent on the degree of occlusal wear, nor on the position on the tooth or the individual's age. However, facet width is an important factor determining the number of subvertical grooves. The etiology of subvertical grooves formation on Neandertal teeth remains unclear. Am J Phys Anthropol, 2010. © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.