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AJPA_21433_sm_suppinfoTable1.doc14507KTable S1 – Developmental indicators for assessing skeletal maturation of the knee from dry bone observations (adapted from Pyle and Hoerr, 1959). The following table describes and illustrates the typical developmental indicators for assessment of the maturity stage of the tibia and femur at the knee. The left column describes the indicators which can only been assessed in dry bone specimens, as radiographic features have been eliminated (e.g.: presence of radiopaque lines, areas of greater or lesser bone density or spaces between osseous elements). The right column includes visual aids in the form of photographs and diagrams. Photographs were taken from individuals in the Lisbon collection, who most closely resemble each of the stages. Whenever a stage could not be obtained from skeletal material, a diagram was used instead. The diagrams were created by tracing the epiphyseal and metaphyseal outline of the femur and tibia from the radiographs plates in Pyle and Hoerr (1955). All descriptions provided refer to the anterior view. Descriptions of the lateral view were not included due to their small contribution to the assessment of skeletal maturation of the knee (only used in stages 7 and 10). The fibula and patella were not depicted because they are frequently poorly preserved or are not recovered, when dealing with dry bone specimens. Although Pyle and Hoerr (1955) included descriptions up to the fully mature knee, this table only includes descriptions until the beginning of the epiphyseal fusion at the knee. Although it is possible to distinguish early epiphyseal union from ongoing epiphyseal union in radiographs, these two processes cannot be distinguished in dry bone observations. Skeletal age is obtained from comparison with each of the plates/stages and it may not necessarily match a single stage. In this case, the femur and tibia are frequently found in consecutive stages and the average of the two stages is suggested as the means for obtaining a skeletal age. For details about anatomic terms see Pyle and Hoerr (1959).

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