Information on one Ecuadorian and three Peruvian Amerindian populations for 11 autosomal short tandem repeat (STR) loci is presented and incorporated in analyses that includes 26 other Native groups spread all over South America. Although in comparison with other studies we used a reduced number of markers, the number of populations included in our analyses is currently unmatched by any genome-wide dataset. The genetic polymorphisms indicate a clear division of the populations into three broad geographical areas: Andes, Amazonia, and the Southeast, which includes the Chaco and southern Brazil. The data also show good agreement with proposed hypotheses of splitting and dispersion of major language groups over the last 3,000 years. Therefore, relevant aspects ofNative American history can be traced using as few as 11 STR autosomal markers coupled with a broad geographic distribution of sampled populations. Am J Phys Anthropol, 2011. © 2011 Wiley-Liss, Inc.