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A molecular phylogeny of the tamarins (genus Saguinus) based on five nuclear sequence data from regions containing Alu insertions

Authors

  • Divino Bruno da Cunha,

    1. Genetics and Molecular Biology Laboratory, Coastal Studies Institute, Bragança Campus, Universidade Federal do Pará, 68.600-000 Bragança-PA, Brazil
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  • Eliene Monteiro,

    1. Genetics and Molecular Biology Laboratory, Coastal Studies Institute, Bragança Campus, Universidade Federal do Pará, 68.600-000 Bragança-PA, Brazil
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  • Marcelo Vallinoto,

    1. Genetics and Molecular Biology Laboratory, Coastal Studies Institute, Bragança Campus, Universidade Federal do Pará, 68.600-000 Bragança-PA, Brazil
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  • Iracilda Sampaio,

    1. Genetics and Molecular Biology Laboratory, Coastal Studies Institute, Bragança Campus, Universidade Federal do Pará, 68.600-000 Bragança-PA, Brazil
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  • Stephen F. Ferrari,

    1. Department of Biology, Universidade Federal de Sergipe, 49.100-000 São Cristóvão-SE, Brazil
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  • Horacio Schneider

    Corresponding author
    1. Genetics and Molecular Biology Laboratory, Coastal Studies Institute, Bragança Campus, Universidade Federal do Pará, 68.600-000 Bragança-PA, Brazil
    • Laboratório de Genética e Biologia Molecular, Instituto de Estudos Costeiros, Campus de Bragança, Universidade Federal do Pará, Alameda Leandro Ribeiro s/n, Bairro Aldeia, 68600-000 Bragança, Pará, Brazil
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Abstract

This study presents a molecular phylogeny of the Saguinus genus, based on the analysis of the DNA sequences of five nuclear loci with Alu insertions in 10 species. The concatenated alignment produced a polytomic arrangement with four main groups, although only two clades—the Amazonian (S. midas, S. niger, and S. bicolor) and the Colombian (S. leucopus and S. oedipus) tamarins—were statistically significant. The emergence of the midas-bicolor clade was estimated at about 5 million years ago (mya), and that of the Colombian clade, at 4.6 mya. The phylogenetic relationships among the mustached tamarins (S. mystax, S. imperator, and S. labiatus) remained unresolved, as did the internal arrangement of the midas group. The lack of a clear consensus on the phylogeny of this group may be related to rapid bursts of evolutionary change within the context of a highly dynamic environment, which may be difficult to resolve using the available quantitative approaches. On the other hand, the discrepancies between mtDNA and nDNA in resolving phylogenies strongly indicate the role of reticulated evolution in the evolutionary history of this group. We hope that the advance of whole genome sequencing technology and increasing information on nuclear markers and SNPs, coupled with a better understanding of the geological phenomena that took place in western Amazonia over the past 20 million years, will shed further light on the phylogenetic history of these New World primates. Am J Phys Anthropol, 2011. © 2011 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

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