SEARCH

SEARCH BY CITATION

LITERATURE CITED

  • Adler C-P. 2000. Bone diseases. Berlin: Springer Verlag.
  • Akrawi F. 1949. Is bejel syphilis? Br J Venereal Dis 25: 115123.
  • Alduc-Le Bagousse A,Blondiaux J. 2001. Hyperostoses corticales fœtale et infantile à Lisieux (IVe s): retour à Costebelle (Fetal and infantile cortical hyperostoses at Lisieux (4th C): Return to Costebelle). Toulon, France: Centre Archéologique du Var. p 6064.
  • Ambrose S. 1993. Isotopic analysis of paleodiets: methodological and interpretive considerations. In: Sandford M, editor. Investigation of ancient human tissue: chemical analyses in anthropology. Langhorne: Gordon and Breach Scientific. p 59130.
  • Anderson T,Arcini C,Anda S,Tangerud A,Robertsen G. 1986. Suspected endemic syphilis (treponarid) in sixteenth-century Norway. Med Hist 301: 341350.
  • Andre L. 1994. Was “le mal de Naples” A.I.D.S.? In: Dutour O,Pálfi G,Berato J,Brun J-P, editors. L'origine de la syphilis en Europe: avant ou après 1493? (The origin of syphilis in Europe: before or after 1493?). Toulon, France: Editions Errance. p 274277.
  • Andrews D. 1993. Cressing temple: a templar and hospitaller manor in Essex. Essex: Essex County Council Planning Department.
  • Arneborg J,Heinemeier J,Lynnerup N,Nielsen H,Rud N,Sveinsbjörnsdóttir A. 1999. Change of diet of the Greenland Vikings determined from stable carbon isotope analysis and C-14 dating of their bones. Radiocarbon 41: 157168.
  • Arrizabalaga J,Henderson J,French R. 1997. The great pox: the French disease in Renaissance Europe. New Haven: Yale University Press.
  • Ascough P,Cook G,Dugmore A. 2005. Methodological approaches to determining the marine radiocarbon reservoir effect. Prog Phys Geogr 29: 532547.
  • Aufderheide A,Rodrìguez-Martìn C. 1998. The Cambridge encyclopedia of paleopathology. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
  • Baker B,Armelagos G. 1988. The origin and antiquity of syphilis: paleopathological diagnosis and interpretation. Curr Anthropol 29: 703738.
  • Bargman G,Neu R,Powers H,Gardner L. 1970. A 46,XX,t(Cp+;Cq-) translocation in a girl with multiple congenital anomalies and in her phenotypically normal father 46,XY,t(Cp+;Cq-)*. J Med Genet 7: 7780.
  • Barnes C,Sweeting C,Jennings S,Barry J,Polunin N. 2007. Effect of temperature and ration size on carbon and nitrogen stable isotope trophic fractionation. Funct Ecol 21: 356362.
  • Barrett J,Locker A,Roberts C. 2004. “Dark age economics” revisited: the English fish bone evidence. AD 600-1600. Antiquity 78: 616636.
  • Bayliss A,Shepherd Popescu E,Beavan-Athfield N,Bronk Ramsey C,Cook G,Locker A. 2004. The potential significance of dietary offsets for the interpretation of radiocarbon dates: an archaeologically significant example from medieval Norwich. J Archaeol Sci 31: 563575.
  • Becker M. 1988. On the origin and antiquity of syphilis (comment). Curr Anthropol 29: 720721.
  • Bérato J,Dutour O,Pálfi G. 1994. Lèsions pathologiques de Cristobal: foetus du bas-empire Romain. In: Dutour O,Pálfi G,Berato J,Brun J-P, editors. L'origine de la syphilis en Europe: avant ou après 1493? (The origin of syphilis in Europe: before or after 1493?). Toulon, France: Editions Errance. p 133138.
  • Blondiaux J. 2008. La paléopathologie des tréponématoses (The paleopathology of the treponematoses). In: Mariaud O, editor. Ostéo-archéologie et techniques médico-légales: Tendances et perspectives. Collection pathographie, 2. Paris: De Boccard.
  • Blondiaux J. 2010. Personal communication: Dating of cases from Ardenne and Thaon.
  • Blondiaux J,Alduc-Le Bagousse A. 1994. A treponematosis dated from the Late Roman Empire in Normandie, France. In: Dutour O,Pálfi G,Berato J,Brun J-P, editors. L'origine de la syphilis en Europe: avant ou après 1493? (The origin of syphilis in Europe: before or after 1493?). Toulon, France: Editions Errance. p 99100.
  • Blondiaux J,Durr J,Khouchaf L,Eisenberg L. 2002. Microscopic study and X-ray analysis of two 5th century cases of leprosy: palaeoepidemiological inferences. In: Roberts C,Lewis M,Manchester K, editors. The past and present of leprosy: archaeological, historical, palaeopathological and clinical approaches. Oxford: BAR Archaeopress. p 105110.
  • Borreani M,Brun J-P. 1994. La tombe No 1 de Costebelle et son contexte archèologique (The Roman tomb No 1 of Costebelle and its archaeological context). In: Dutour O,Pálfi G,Berato J,Brun J-P, editors. L'origine de la syphilis en Europe: avant ou après 1493? (The origin of syphilis in Europe: before or after 1493?). Toulon, France: Editions Errance. p 133141.
  • Boulter S,Robertson D,Start H. 1998. The Newcastle Infirmary at the Forth, Newcastle upon Tyne: Vol. 2: The osteology: people, disease, and surgery. Sheffield: ARCUS.
  • Brickley M,McKinley J. 2004. Guidance to standards for recording human skeletal remains. Reading: Institute of Field Archaeologists and British Association of Biological Anthropology and Osteoarchaeology, University of Reading.
  • Brothwell D. 1961. The palaeopathology of early British man: an essay on the problems of diagnosis and analysis. J R Anthropol Inst 91: 318344.
  • Brothwell D. 1981. Digging up bones: the excavation, treatment and study of human skeletal remains. London: British Museum of Natural History.
  • Brothwell D. 2005. North American treponematosis against the bigger world picture. In: Powell M,Cook D, editors. The myth of syphilis: the natural history of treponematosis in North America. Gainesville, FL: University Press of Florida/ Florida Museum of Natural History. p 480497.
  • Brothwell D,Sandison A. 1967. Diseases in antiquity: a survey of the diseases, injuries, and surgery of early populations. Springfield, IL: CC Thomas.
  • Brown W,Donohue J,Axnick N,Blount J,Ewen N,Jones O. 1970. Syphilis and other venereal diseases. Cambridge: Harvard University Press.
  • Buikstra J,Cook D. 1980. Paleopathology: an American account. Annu Rev Anthropol 9: 433470.
  • Buikstra J,Ubelaker D, editors. 1994. Standards for data collection from human skeletal remains. Fayetteville: Arkansas Archeological Survey Research Series.
  • Bullen A. 1972. Paleoepidemiology and distribution of prehistoric treponemiasis (syphilis) in Florida. Florida Anthropologist 25133174.
  • Buret F. 1891. Syphilis today and among the ancient. Philadelphia: FA Davis.
  • Buzhilova A. 1999. Medieval examples of syphilis from European Russia. Int J Osteoarchaeol 9: 271276.
  • Caffey J. 1939. Syphilis of the skeleton in early infancy: the non-specificity of many of the roentgenographic changes. Am J Roentgenol 42: 637655.
  • Cardy A. 1997. The human bones. In: Hill P, editor. Whithorn and St Ninian: the excavation of a Monastic Town, 1984–91. Stroud: Sutton Publishing. p 519560.
  • Carmichael A. 1990. Syphilis and the Columbian exchange: was the disease really new? In: Marques M,Cule J, editors. The great maritime discoveries and world health. Lisbon: Ecola Nacional de Saúde Pública. p 187200.
  • Cassman V, editor. 2007. Human remains. Lanham, MD: AltaMira Press.
  • Castiglioni A. 1941. A history of medicine. New York: AA Knopf.
  • Centurion-Lara A,Molini B,Godornes C,Sun E,Hevner K,Voorhis W,Lukehart S. 2006. Molecular differentiation of Treponema pallidum subspecies. J Clin Microbiol 44: 33773380.
  • Chamberlain A. 2011. Personal communication: Additional radiocarbon date performed on St. Helen-on-the-Walls cranium from York, UK.
  • Cockburn T. 1961. The origins of the treponematoses. Bulletin of the World Health Organization 24: 221228.
  • Cole G,Waldron T. 2011 Apple Down 152: a putative case of syphilis from sixth century AD Anglo-Saxon England. Am J Phys Anthropol 144:7279.
  • Connell B,Gray Jones A,Redfern R,Walker D. 0000. Spitalfields: A Bioarchaeological Study of Health and Disease from a Medieval London Cemetery. Archaeological Excavations at Spitalfields Market, 1991–2007. London: MoLAS Monograph. In review.
  • Cook D. 1984. Subsistence and health in the lower Illinois valley: osteological evidence. In: Cohen M,Armelagos G, editors. Paleopathology at the origins of agriculture. Orlando: Academic Press. p 235269.
  • Cook D. 1994. Dental evidence for congenital syphilis (and its absence) before and after the conquest of the New World. In: Dutour O,Pálfi G,Berato J,Brun J-P, editors. L'origine de la syphilis en Europe: avant ou après 1493? (The origin of syphilis in Europe: before or after 1493?). Toulon, France: Editions Errance. p 169175.
  • Cook D. 2005. Syphilis? Not quite: paleoepidemiology in an evolutionary context in the midwest. In: Powell M,Cook D, editors. The myth of syphilis: the natural history of treponematosis in North America. Gainesville, FL: University Press of Florida/Florida Museum of Natural History. p 177199.
  • Cook D,Powell M. 2005. Piecing the puzzle together: North American treponematosis in overview. In: Powell M,Cook D, editors. The myth of syphilis: the natural history of treponematosis in North America. Gainesville, FL: University Press of Florida/Florida Museum of Natural History. p 442477.
  • Cook D,Powell M. 2006. The evolution of American paleopathology. In: Buikstra J,Beck L, editors. Bioarchaeology: the contextual analysis of human remains. Amsterdam: Academic Press. p 281323.
  • Cook G,Bonsall C,Hedges R,McSweeney K,Boronean V,Pettitt P. 2001. A freshwater diet-derived 14C reservoir effect at the stone age sites at the Iron Gates gorge. Radiocarbon 43: 453460.
  • Cook G,Bonsall R,Hedges R,McSweeney K,Boronean V,Vartosiewicz L,Pettitt P. 2002. Problems of dating human bones from the Iron Gates. Antiquity 76: 7785.
  • Correal Urrego G. 1990. Aguazuque: evidencias de cazadores, recolectores y plantadores en la altiplanicie de la Cordillera Oriental. Bogota: Fundación de Investigaciones Arquelógicas Nacionales Banco de la República.
  • Crane-Kramer G. 2002. Was there a medieval diagnostic confusion between leprosy and syphilis? An examination of the skeletal evidence. In: Roberts C,Lewis M,Manchester K, editors. The past and present of leprosy: archaeological, historical, palaeopathological and clinical approaches. Oxford: BAR Archaeopress. p 111122.
  • Crosby A. 1969. The early history of syphilis: a reappraisal. Am Anthropol 71: 218227.
  • Crosby A. 1972. Conquistador y pestilencia. The Columbian exchange: biological and cultural consequences of 1492. Westport, CT: Greenwood Publishing Company. p 3563.
  • Csonka G. 1953. Clinical aspects of bejel. Br J Venereal Dis 29: 95103.
  • Cybulski J. 1990. Human biology. In: Sturtevant W, editor. Handbook of the North American Indians. Washington: Smithsonian. p 5259.
  • Cybulski J. 2010. Personal communication: Radiocarbon date information for burial 360, Boardwalk Site, British Columbia.
  • Davis B,Tomonari-Tuggle M,Wickler S. 1992. Archaeological investigations at the Leo Palace Hotel Site, Nation Beach, Tumon Bay, Guam, Vol. 1. Archaeological data recovery, burial recovery, and monitoring. Honolulu, Hawai'i: International Archaeological Research Institute, Inc.
  • Dawes J,Magilton J. 1980. The cemetery of St. Helen-on-the-Walls, Aldwark. York: Council for British Archaeology.
  • Deenen H. 2010. Personal communication: Radiocarbon date information for specimen 458-22 A-ICNMH.
  • Díaz de Isla R. 1539. Tractado contra el mal serpentino (treatise on the serpentine malady). Sevilla: Dominico de Robertis. Fol 64. the Hospital of All Saints in Lisbon.
  • Diday P. 1959. A treatise on syphilis in newborn children and infants at the breast. London: The New Sydenham Society.
  • Dutour O,Pálfi G,Berato J,Brun J-P, editors. 1994a. L'origine de la syphilis en Europe: avant ou après 1493? (The origin of syphilis in Europe: before or after 1493?). Toulon, France: Editions Errance.
  • Dutour O,Panuel M,Pálfi G,Bérato J. 1994b. Diagnostic différentiel des lésions observées sur le foetus Cristobal (Differential diagnosis of the lesions observed on the “Cristobal” fetus). In: Dutour O,Pálfi G,Berato J,Brun J-P, editors. L'origine de la syphilis en Europe: avant ou après 1493? (The origin of syphilis in Europe: before or after 1493?). Toulon, France: Editions Errance. p 139144.
  • Ehrlich I,Kricun M. 1976. Radiographic findings in early acquired syphilis: case report and critical review. Am J Roentgenol 127: 789792.
  • El-Najjar M. 1979. Human treponematosis and tuberculosis: evidence from the New World. Am J Phys Anthropol 51: 599618.
  • Erdal Y. 2006. A pre-Columbian case of congenital syphilis from Anatolia (Nicaea, 13th century AD). Int J Osteoarchaeol 16: 1633.
  • Evans D. 2000. Buried with the friars. Br Archaeol 53: 16.
  • Evans D. 2007. Personal communication: Information about the archaeology of the Hull Magistrates Court site, UK.
  • Fernandez de Oviedo y Valdes G. 1526. Sumario de la natural historia de las Indias. Mexico: Fondo de Cultura Economico.
  • Fiumara N. 1952. The incidence of prenatal syphilis at the Boston City Hospital. N Engl J Med 247: 4852.
  • Fiumara N. 1975. Syphilis in newborn children. Clin Obstet Gynecol 18: 183189.
  • Fiumara N,Fleming W,Downing J,Good F. 1951. The incidence of syphilis at the Boston City Hospital. N Engl J Med 245: 947953.
  • Fiumara Y,Lessel R. 1970. Manifestations of late congenital syphilis. Arch Dermatol 102: 7883.
  • Foa A. 1990. The new and the old: the spread of syphilis. In: Muir E,Ruggiero G, editors. Sex and gender in historical perspective. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press. p 2645.
  • Fournier A. 1886. La syphilis héréditaire tardive. Paris: Masson.
  • Ghadouane M,Benjelloun B,Elharim-Roudies L,Jorio-Benkhraba M,el Malki-Tazi A. 1995. Skeletal lesions in early congenital syphilis (a review of 86 cases). Revue du Rhumatisme (English ed.) 62: 433437.
  • Gladykowska-Rzeczycka J. 1994. Syphilis in ancient and medieval Poland? In: Dutour O,Pálfi G,Berato J,Brun J-P, editors. L'origine de la syphilis en Europe: avant ou après 1493? (The origin of syphilis in Europe: before or after 1493?). Toulon, France: Editions Errance. p 116118.
  • Gladykowska-Rzeczycka J,Kwiatkowska B,Nowakowski D,Trnka J. 2003. Treponematosis in a 14th century skeleton from Wroclaw, Poland. J Paleopathol 15: 187197.
  • Goff C. 1967. Syphilis. In: Brothwell D, Sandison A, editors. Diseases in Antiquity. Springfield, IL: Charles C Thomas. p 279294.
  • Gray R,Mulligan C,Molini B,Sun E,Giacani L,Godornes C,Kitchen A,Lukehart S,Centurion-Lara A. 2006. Molecular evolution of the tprC, D, I, K, G, and J genes in the pathogenic genus Treponema. Mol Biol Evol 23: 22202233.
  • Grin E. 1956. Endemic syphilis and yaws. Bull World Health Organ 24: 229238.
  • Hackett C. 1936. A critical survey of some references to syphilis and yaws among the Australian aborigines. Med J Aust 1: 733745.
  • Hackett C. 1957. An international nomenclature of yaws lesions. Geneva: World Health Organization.
  • Hackett C. 1963. On the origin of the human treponematoses (pinta, yaws, endemic syphilis and venereal syphilis). Bull World Health Organ 29: 741.
  • Hackett C. 1967. The human treponematoses. In: Brothwell D,Sandison A, editors. Diseases in antiquity. Springfield, IL: Thomas. p 152169.
  • Hackett C. 1976. Diagnostic criteria of syphilis, yaws and treponarid (treponematoses) and of some other diseases in dry bones (for use in osteo-archaeology). Berlin: Springer-Verlag.
  • Hackett C. 1981. Development of caries sicca in a dry calvaria. Virchows Arch [Pathol Anat] 391: 5379.
  • Hall D. 2008. Personal communication: Post-reformation burials.
  • Haltom W,Shands AJ. 1938. Evidence of syphilis in mound builders' bones: Gross pathologic study. Arch Path 25:228242.
  • Harper K,Ocampo P,Steiner B,George R,Silverman M,Bolotin S,Pillay A,Saunders N,Armelagos G. 2008a. On the origin of the treponematoses: a phylogenetic approach. PLoS Neglect Trop Dis 1: e148.
  • Harper K,Steiner B,Silverman M,Armelagos G. 2008b. Molecular studies in Treponema pallidum evolution: toward reality (rebuttal from the authors of “on the origin of the Treponematoses”). PLoS Neglect Trop Dis. Available at: http://tinyurl.com/5uejhpg
  • Harris J. 1996. Foreign bodies and the body politic: discourses of social pathology in early modern England. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.
  • Hazen H. 1921. Syphilis. St. Louis: C.V. Mosby.
  • Heathcote G,Stodder A,Buckley H,Hanson D,Douglas M,Underwood J,Taisipic T,Diego V. 1998. On treponemal disease in the western Pacific: corrections and critique. Curr Anthropol 39: 359368.
  • Hedges R. 2004. Isotopes and red herrings: comments on Milner et al. and Lidén et al. Antiquity 78: 3437.
  • Hedges R,Van Klinken G. 1992. A review of current approaches in the pre-treatment of bone for radiocarbon dating by AMS. Radiocarbon 34: 279291.
  • Henneberg M,Henneberg R. 1994. Treponematosis in an ancient Greek colony of Metaponto, southern Italy, 580–250 BCE. In: Dutour O,Pálfi G,Berato J,Brun J-P, editors. L'origine de la syphilis en Europe: avant ou après 1493? (The origin of syphilis in Europe: before or after 1493?). Toulon, France: Editions Errance. p 9298.
  • Henneberg M,Henneberg R. 1998. Biological characteristics of the population based on analysis of skeletal remains. In: Carter J, editor. The Chora of Metaponto: The Necropoleis. Austin, TX: University of Texas Press. p 503537.
  • Henneberg M,Henneberg R,Carter J. 1992. Health in colonial Metaponto. Natl Geogr Res Explor 8: 446459.
  • Higham T,Bronk Ramsey C,Karavanik I,Smith F,Trinkaus E. 2006. Revised direct radiocarbon dating of the Vindija G1 Upper Paleolithic Neandertals. Proc Natl Acad Sci 103: 553557.
  • Hill P, editor. 1997. Whithorn and St. Ninian: the excavation of a Monastic Town, 1984–91. Stroud, UK: Sutton Publishing.
  • Hillson S,Grigson C,Bond S. 1998. Dental defects of congenital syphilis. Am J Phys Anthropol 107: 2540.
  • Hiscock P. 2008. The colonization of Australia. The archaelogy of ancient Australia. New York: Routledge.
  • Hodges D,Schermer S. 2005. Treponematosis in the northern and central Great Plains: its nature and distribution. In: Powell M,Cook D, editors. The myth of syphilis: the natural history of treponematosis in North America. Gainesville, FL: University Press of Florida/Florida Museum of Natural History. p 200227.
  • Hoeprich P. 1994. Nonsyphilitic treponematoses. In: Hoeprich P,Jordan M, editors. Infectious disease. Philadelphia: JB Lippincott. p 10211034.
  • Holcomb R. 1934. Christopher Columbus and the American origin of syphilis. US Naval Med Bull 32: 401430.
  • Holcomb R. 1935. The antiquity of syphilis. Med Life 42: 275325.
  • Hollander D. 1981. Treponematosis from pinta to venereal syphilis revisited: hypothesis for temperature determination of disease patterns. Sex Trans Dis 8: 3437.
  • Housley R. 1997. Accelerator dating of syphilitic bone. In: Hurley M, Scully O, Cleary R, McCutcheon S, editors. Late Viking age and medieval Waterford: excavations 1986–1992. Waterford, UK: Institute of Public Administration, Waterford Corporation. p 817–845.
  • Howland M. 2003. Compound-specific stable isotope investigations of the influence of diet on the stable isotope composition of body tissues. PhD Dissertation: University of Bristol.
  • Hrdlička A. 1922. The Anthropology of Florida. Deland: Florida Historical Society.
  • Hudson E. 1958. The treponematoses: or treponematosis? Br J Venereal Dis 34: 2223.
  • Hudson E. 1961. Historical approach to the terminology of syphilis. Arch Dermatol 84: 545562.
  • Hudson E. 1963. Treponematosis and anthropology. Anna Intern Med 58:10371048.
  • Hudson E. 1964. Treponematosis and African slavery. Br J Venereal Dis 40: 4352.
  • Hudson E. 1965. Treponematosis and man's social evolution. Am Anthropol 67: 885901.
  • Hurley M,Scully O,Cleary R,McCutcheon S, editors. 1997. Late Viking age and medieval Waterford: Excavations 1986–1992. Waterford, UK: Institute of Public Administration, Waterford Corporation.
  • Hussein M. 1949. Quelques spécimens de pathologie osseuse chez les anciens Égyptiens. Bull Inst Egypt 32: 1117.
  • Hutchinson D,Richman R. 2006. Regional, social, and evolutionary perspectives on treponemal infection in the southeastern United States. Am J Phys Anthropol 129: 544558.
  • Ingraham N. 1951. The value of penicillin alone in the prevention and treatment of congenital syphilis. Acta Dermato Venereol 31( Supp 24): 6087.
  • Jacobi K,Cook D,Corruccini R,Handler J. 1992. Congenital syphilis in the past: slaves at Newton plantation, Barbados, West Indies. Am J Phys Anthropol 89: 145158.
  • Jaffe H. 1972. Metabolic, degenerative, and inflammatory diseases of bones and joints. Philadelphia: Lea and Febirger.
  • James T. 1997. Excavations at Carmarthern Greyfriars, 1983–1990. Medieval Archaeol 41: 94100.
  • Jankauskas R. 1994. Syphilis in eastern Europe: historical and paleopathological evidence. In: Dutour O,Pálfi G,Berato J,Brun J-P, editors. L'origine de la syphilis en Europe: avant ou après 1493? (The origin of syphilis in Europe: before or after 1493?). Toulon, France: Editions Errance. p 237239.
  • Jones J. 1876. Exploration of the aboriginal remains of Tennessee. Smithsonian Contributions to Knowledge 259:1–17.
  • Kampmeier R. 1984. Early development of knowledge of sexually transmitted diseases. In: Holmes K,Mardh P-A,Sparling P,Wesisner P, editors. Sexually transmitted diseases. New York: McGraw Hill. p 1929.
  • Katzenberg M,Lovell N. 1999. Stable isotope variation in pathological bone. Int J Osteoarchaeol 9: 316324.
  • Kennedy K. 1990. Reconstruction of trauma, disease, and lifeways of prehistoric peoples of South Asia from the skeletal record. South Asian archaeology 1987; Proceedings of the ninth international conference of the association of South Asian archaeologists in Western Europe. Rome: Instituto Italiano per il Medio ed Estremo Oriente. p 6177.
  • Kennedy K. 2000. God-apes and fossil men: Paleopanthropology of South Asia. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press.
  • Kleinman P,Marks S. 1996. A regional approach to the classic metaphyseal lesion in abused infants: the proximal tibia. J Roentegenol 166: 421426.
  • Kleinman P,Marks S,Blackbourne B. 1986. The metaphyseal lesion in abused infants: a radiologic-histopathologic study. Am J Roentegenol 146: 895905.
  • Knell RJ. 2004. Syphilis in renaissance Europe: rapid evolution of an introduced sexually transmitted disease? Proc R Soc Lond Ser B Biol Sci 271( Supp 4): 174176.
  • Kranz P. 1927. Zahndeformitten bei angeborener syphilis. In: Jadassohn J, editor. Handbuch der hautund geschlechtskrankheiten. Berlin: Springer. p 240270.
  • Kreshover S. 1960. Metabolic disturbances in tooth formation. Ann N Y Acad Sci 85: 161167.
  • Krog H,Tauber H. 1974. C-14 chronology of late-and post-glacial marine deposits in North Jutland. Danmarks geologiske Undersøgelse, Årbog 93105.
  • Kuhnen C,Schultz M,Bosse A,Weber A,Preuschoft H,Müller K-M. 1999. Endemische syphilis an den rekognoszierten reliquien des Gottfried von Cappenberg (Endemic syphilis in the identified relics of Gottfried von Cappenberg: a paleopathological study). Pathologe 20: 292296.
  • LaFond R,Lukehart S. 2006. Biological basis for syphilis. Clin Microbiol Rev 19: 2949.
  • Larsen C. 1997. Bioarchaeology: interpreting behavior from the human skeleton. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
  • Larsen C. 2002. Bioarchaeology: the lives and lifestyles of past people. J Archaeol Res 10: 119166.
  • Las Casas B. 1530. Apologetica historica. Madrid: Allanza Editorial.
  • Lelong O. 2003. St Trolla's chapel. Kintradwell, Sutherland: the occupants of the medieval burial ground and their patron saint. Scottish Archaeol J 25: 147163.
  • Lillie M,Budd C,Potekhina I,Hedges R. 2009. The radiocarbon reservoir effect: new evidence from the cemeteries of the middle and lower Dnieper basin, Ukraine. J Archaeol Sci 36: 256264.
  • Lindenbaum R,Bobrow M. 1975. Reciprocal translocations in man: 3:1 meiotic disjunction resulting in 47- or 45-chromosome offspring. J Med Genet 12: 2943.
  • Livingstone F. 1991. On the origin of syphilis: an alternative hypothesis. Curr Anthropol 32: 587590.
  • Loganovskaja Y,Kozak A,Balakin S. 2000. Cranium-maxilla and bone disease in Slavs of XI-XV centuries according to the paleoanthropological findings. Ukrainian Med J 1: 5356.
  • Lukacs J,Bogorad R,Walimbe S,Dunbar D. 1986. Paleopathology at Inamgaon: a post-Harappan agrarian village in western India. Proc Am Philos Soc 130: 289311.
  • Lukacs J,Walimbe S. 1984. Deciduous dental morphology and the biological affinities of a late Chalcolithic skeletal series from western India. Am J Phys Anthropol 65: 2330.
  • Lunt D,Watt M. 1997. The human dentitions. In: Hill P, editor. Whithorn and St Ninian: the excavation of a Monastic Town, 1984–91. Stroud, UK: Sutton Publishing. p 562591.
  • Lynnerup N,Rhee N. 2010. Syphilis in 18th century Copenhagen: comparing bone lesions to historical epidemiological data. Paleopathology Association Abstracts: 14.
  • Mafart B-Y. 1993. New study on the Roman cranium of Arles: frontal and naso-palatine syphilis? J Pathol 5: 99100.
  • Mafart B-Y,De Lumley M,Housley R,Cantaloube P,Martin J-P,Joffre P,Spitery E,Gagnière S. 1998. Le crâne “Romain” d'Arles: une syphilis frontale et naso-palatine post-Colombienne, apport des nouvelles méthodes de datation C14 en paléopathologie (the “Roman” skull of Arles: a post-Columbian case of frontal and naso-palatine syphilis, contribution of new C14 dating methods in paleopathology). Bull Mém Soc Anthropol Paris 10: 333344.
  • Marcsik A. 1994. Data to the epidemiology of syphilis in ancient populations in central Europe. In: Dutour O,Pálfi G,Berato J,Brun J-P, editors. L'Origine de la syphilis en Europe: avant ou après 1493? (The origin of syphilis in Europe: before or after 1493?). Toulon, France: Editions Errance. p 233236.
  • Maynard D,Ivens R. 2002. The excavation of Gorefields: a medieval nunnery at stoke goldington, Buckinghamshire. Rec Buckinghamshire 42: 19101.
  • Mays S. 1998. The archaeology of human bones. London: Routledge.
  • Mays S,Crane-Kramer G,Bayliss A. 2003. Two probable cases of treponemal disease of medieval date from England. Am J Phys Anthropol 120: 133143.
  • Mays S,Vincent S,Meadows J. 0000 A possible case of treponemal disease from England dating to the 11th–12th century AD. Int J Osteoarchaeol (in press).
  • McIntyre L,Bruce G,Chamberlain A. 0000. The cemetery of All Saints, Fishergate, York. On-Site Archaeology Monograph. York: On-Site Archaeology, Ltd. In preparation.
  • McGough L. 2005. Syphilis in history: a response to 2 articles. Clin Infect Dis 41: 573575.
  • Meier J,Mollet E. 1986. Acute periostitis in early acquired syphilis simulating shin splints in a jogger. Am J Sports Med 14: 327328.
  • Merbs C. 1992. New world of infectious disease. Yrb Phys Anthropol 35: 342.
  • Merbs C. 2009. Personal communication: Dating of skeletal remains from the Semna South site, Sudan.
  • Meyer C,Jung C,Kohl T,Poenicke A,Poppe A,Alt K. 2002. Syphilis 2001: a palaeopathological reappraisal. Homo 53: 3958.
  • Mihesuah D, editor. 2000. Repatriation reader: who owns American indian remains? Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press.
  • Miller H. 2000. Secrets of the dead. London: Channel 4 Books. p 149184.
  • Milner G,Craig O,Bailey G,Pedersen K,Andersen S. 2004. Something fishy in the Neolithic? A re-evaluation of stable isotope analysis of Mesolithic and Neolithic Coastal populations. Antiquity 78: 922.
  • Mitchell P. 2003. Pre-Colombian treponemal disease from 14th century AD Safed, Israel, and implications for the medieval eastern Mediterranean. Am J Phys Anthropol 121: 117124.
  • Mitchell P. 2009. Technical note: a revised radiocarbon date for a case of treponemal disease from Safed, Israel, from the 15th Century AD. Am J Phys Anthropol 139: 274.
  • Møller-Christensen V. 1969. The history of syphilis and leprosy—an osteoarchaeological approach. Abbotempo 1: 2025.
  • Møller-Christensen V. 1978. Leprosy changes of the skull. Odense: Odense University Press.
  • Molto JE,Stewart JA,Reimer P. 1997. Problems in radiocarbon dating human remains from arid coastal areas: an example from the cape region of Baja California. Am Antiquity 62: 489507.
  • Morant G,Hoadley M. 1931. A study of the recently excavated Spitalfields crania. Biometrika 23: 191248.
  • Morris A. 1988. The origin and antiquity of syphilis (comment). Curr Anthropol 29: 723724.
  • Müldner G,Richards M. 2005. Fast or feast: reconstructing diet in later medieval England by stable isotope analysis. J Archaeol Sci 32: 3948.
  • Müldner G,Richards M. 2007. Stable isotope evidence for 1500 years of human diet at the city of York. UK. Am J Phys Anthropol 133: 682697.
  • Mulligan C,Norris S,Lukehart S. 2008. Molecular studies in Treponema pallidum evolution: towards clarity? PLoS Neglect Trop Dis 2: 184188.
  • Murray J,Merriweather A,Freedman M. 1956. Endemic syphilis in the Bakwena reserve of the Bechuanaland protectorate. Bull World Health Organ 15: 9751039.
  • Musher D,Baughn R. 1998. Syphilis. In: Gorbach S,Bartlett J,Blacklow N, editors. Infectious diseases,2nd ed. Toronto: WB Saunders Company. p 980986.
  • O'Rourke D,Hayes M,Carlyle S. 2005. The consent process and aDNA research: contrasting approaches in North America. In: Turner T, editor. Biological anthropology and ethics: from repatriation to genetic identity. Albany: State University of New York Press. p 231241.
  • Oriel J. 1994. The scars of Venus. London: Springer-Verlag.
  • Ortner D. 1994. Descriptive methodology in paleopathology. In: Owsley D,Jantz R, editors. Skeletal biology in the Great Plains: migration, warfare, health, and subsistence. Washington, DC: Smithsonian Institution Press. p 7380.
  • Ortner D. 2003. Identification of pathological conditions in human skeletal remains. Amsterdam: Academic Press.
  • Ortner D,Putschar W. 1981. Identification of pathological conditions in human skeletal remains. Washington, DC: Smithsonian Institution Press.
  • Ortner D,Putschar W. 1985. Identification of pathological conditions in human skeletal remains. Washington, DC: Smithsonian Institution Press.
  • Ortner D,Tuross N,Stix A. 1992. New approaches to the study of disease in archeological New World populations. Hum Biol 64: 337360.
  • Pálfi G,Bérato J,Dutour O. 1994. Paléopathologie de la série de Costebelle, Hyères, Var (3°–5° siècles aprés J-C). In: Dutour O,Pálfi G,Berato J,Brun J-P, editors. L'origine de la syphilis en Europe: avant ou après 1493? (The origin of syphilis in Europe: before or after 1493?). Toulon, France: Editions Errance. p 125132.
  • Pálfi G,Borreani M,Brun J-P,Berato J,Dutour O. 1992. Pre-Columbian congenital syphilis from the late antiquity in France. Int J Osteoarchaeol 2: 245261.
  • Pálfi G,Dutour O,Deák J,Hutás I, editors. 1999. Tuberculosis: past and present. Budapest: Golden Book and the Tuberculosis Foundation.
  • Phillips D,Gregg J. 2001. Uncertainty in source partitioning using stable isotopes. Oecologia 127: 171179.
  • Pietrusewsky M,Douglas M,Ikehara-Quebral R. 1997. An assessment of health and disease in the prehistoric inhabitants of the Mariana Islands. Am J Phys Anthropol 104: 315342.
  • Powell M. 2003. Endemic treponematosis and tuberculosis in the prehistoric southeastern United States: the biological costs of chronic endemic disease. In: Ortner D, Aufderheide A, editors. Human paleopathology: current syntheses and future options. Washington, DC: Smithsonian University Press. p 173180.
  • Powell M,Cook D, editors. 2005a. The myth of syphilis: the natural history of treponematosis in North America. Gainesville, FL: University Press of Florida/Florida Museum of Natural History.
  • Powell M,Cook D. 2005b. Treponematosis: inquiries into the nature of a protean disease. In: Powell M,Cook D, editors. The myth of syphilis: the natural history of treponematosis in North America. Gainesville, FL: University Press of Florida/Florida Museum of Natural History. p 963.
  • Powell M,Jacobi K,Danforth M,Eisenberg L. 2005. Syphilis in mound builder's bones: treponematosis in the central southern United States. In: Powell M,Cook D, editors. The myth of syphilis: the natural history of treponematosis in North America. Gainesville, FL: University Press of Florida/Florida Museum of Natural History. p 117161.
  • Power C. 1992. The spread of syphilis and a possible early case in Waterford. Archaeol Ireland 6: 2021.
  • Pusey W. 1933. The history and epidemiology of syphilis. Springfield, IL: CC Thomas.
  • Quétel C. 1990. History of syphilis (Braddock J, Pike B, translators). Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press.
  • Radolf J,Lukehart S. 2006. Immunology of syphilis. In: Radolf J,Lukehart S, editors. Pathogenic Treponema: molecular and cellular biology. Norfolk, UK: Caister Academic Press. p 285323.
  • Ragsdale B. 1993. Morphologic analysis of skeletal lesions: correlation of imaging studies and pathologic findings. Adv Pathol Lab Med 6: 445490.
  • Ragsdale B,Madewell J,Sweet D. 1981. Radiologic and pathologic analysis of solitary bone lesions, part II: periosteal reactions. Radiol Clin North Am 19: 749783.
  • Ramenofsky A. 1989. Another perspective on acculturation and health in Highland New Guinea. Curr Anthropol 30: 6768.
  • Rao V,Vasulu T,Rector Babu A. 1996. Possible paleopathological evidence of treponematosis from a Megalithic site at Agripalle, India. Am J Phys Anthropol 100: 4955.
  • Rasool M,Govender S. 1989. The skeletal manifestations of congenital syphilis: a review of 197 cases. J Bone Joint Surg 71: 752755.
  • Reginato A. 1993. Syphilitic arthritis and osteitis. Rheumatic Dis Clin North Am 19: 379398.
  • Resnick D. 1988. Neuroarthropathy. In: Resnick D,Niwayama G, editors. Diagnosis of bone and joint disorders,2nd ed. Philadelphia: W.B. Saunders. p 31543185.
  • Resnick D,Niwayama G. 1995. Osteomyelitis, septic arthritis, and soft tissue infection: organisms. In: Resnick D, editor. Diagnosis of bone and joint disorders. Philadephia: Saunders. p 24482558.
  • Reynard L,Hedges R. 2008. Stable hydrogen isotopes of bone collagen in palaeodietary and palaeoenvironmental reconstruction. J Archaeol Sci 35: 19341942.
  • Richards M,Hedges R. 1999. Stable isotope evidence for similarities in the types of marine foods used by Late Mesolithic humans at sites along the Atlantic coast of Europe. J Archaeol Sci 26: 717722.
  • Richards M,Jacobi R,Stringer C,Pettit P,Cook J. 2006. Marine diets in the European Late Upper Paleolithic: a reply to Bocherons and Drucker. J Hum Evol 51: 443444.
  • Richards M,Mellars P. 1998. Stable isotopes and the seasonality of the Oronsay middens. Antiquity 72: 178184.
  • Richards M,Pettit P,Stiner M,Trinkaus E. 2001. Stable isotope evidence for increasing dietary breadth in the European Mid-Upper Paleolithic. Proc Natl Acad Sci 98: 65286532.
  • Richardson M. 2001. Approaches to differential diagnosis in musculoskeletal imaging. Seattle: University of Washington. Available at: www.rad.washington.edu/mskbook//periostealreaction.html.
  • Roberts C. 1994. Treponematosis in Gloucester, England: a theoretical and practical approach to the pre-Columbian theory. In: Dutour O,Pálfi G,Berato J,Brun J-P, editors. L'origine de la syphilis en Europe: avant ou après 1493? (The origin of syphilis in Europe: before or after 1493?). Toulons, France: Editions Errance. p 101108.
  • Roberts C. 2002. The antiquity of leprosy in Britain: the skeletal evidence. In: Roberts C,Lewis M,Manchester K, editors. The past and present of leprosy: archaeological, historical, palaeopathological and clinical approaches. Oxford: BAR Archaeopress. p 213222.
  • Roberts C. 2007. Personal communication: pre-Columbian treponemal disease in the United Kingdom and Europe.
  • Roberts C. 2009. Personal communication: Additional data for radiocarbon dates performed on skeletons from archaeological sites in Hull and Norwich.
  • Roberts CA,Betsinger T,Steckel RH,Larsen CS,Walker PL,Blondiaux J,Grupe G,Maat G,McGlynn G,Papathanasiou A,Tescher-Nicola M,Wittwer-Backofen U,Agnew A,Assis S,Bereczki Z,Bertrand B,Betsinger TK,Binder M,Boulter S,Bourbou C,Boylston A,Brickley M,Burli L,Cooper C,Coppa A,Coughlan J,Drozd A,During E,Eliopoulos C,Eng J,Engel F,Fox S,Furtado M,Gerhards G,Groves S,Harkins K,Holck P,Holst M,Hotz G,Ives R,Jakob T,Jankauskas R,Jennings J,Justus H,Kaminska K,Kjellström A,Knüsel CJ,Kozlowski T,Lagia A,Lopes C,Manolis S,Marcsik A,Marques C,Moenke C,Niel C,Novak SA,Novotny F,Peck J,Potiekhina I,Rega B,Richman R,Rijpma F,Rose J,Ruiz J,Sannen P,Sciulli P,Smith M,Soficaru A,Spannagl M,Storm R,Stroud G,Subira A,Swales D,Tristaroli Y,Tyler E,Ulrich-Bochsler S,Vatteoni S,Villar V,Wiggins R,Williams LL. 2009. The history of European infectious diseases: skeletal evidence of tuberculosis, leprosy, and treponematosis. Am J Phys Anthropol 138( Supp 48): 222223.
  • Roberts J. 2001. Human skeletal remains from Kintradwell House, Brora, Project 1027. Glasgow: Glasgow University Archaeological Research Division.
  • Rokhlin D. 1965. Diseases of ancient men: bones of the men of various epochs: normal and pathological changes. Moscow: Nauka.
  • Rokhlin D,Rubasheva A. 1938. New data on the age of syphilis. Vestnik Rentgenologii 21: 183.
  • Rösing F. 1990. Qubbet el hawa und elephantine: zure bevölkerungsgeschichte von ägypten. Stuttgart: Gustav Fischer Verlag.
  • Rost G. 1942. Roentgen manifestations of bejel (“endemic syphilis”) as observed in the Euphrates river valley. Radiology 38: 32325.
  • Rothschild B. 2005. Scientific integrity, conflict of interest and mythology related to analysis of treponematoses: the importance of being earnest. Chungará (Arica) 37: 265267.
  • Rothschild B,Calderon F,Coppa A,Rothschild C. 2000. First European exposure to syphilis: the Dominican Republic at the time of Columbian contact. Clin Infect Dis 31: 936941.
  • Rothschild B,Hershkovitz I,Rothschild C. 1995. Origin of yaws in the Pleistocene. Nature 378: 343344.
  • Rothschild B,Rothschild C. 1995. Treponemal disease revisited: skeletal discriminators for yaws, bejel, and venereal syphilis. Clin Infect Dis 20: 14021408.
  • Rothschild B,Rothschild C. 1996. Analysis of treponemal disease in North Africa: the case for bejel in the Sudan, but absence in west North Africa. J Hum Evol 11: 1115.
  • Rothschild B,Rothschild C. 1997. Congenital syphilis in the archaeological record: diagnostic insensitivity of osseous lesions. Int J Osteoarchaeol 7: 3942.
  • Rothschild B,Rothschild C. 1998. Psuedoscience and treponemal disease in the western Pacific. Curr Anthropol 40: 6971.
  • Salazar J,Hazlett K,Radolf J. 2002. The immune response to infection with Treponema pallidum, the stealth pathogen. Microbes Infect 4: 11331140.
  • Salt C. 2002. Secrets of the dead: the syphilis enigma. Secrets of the dead. New York, USA: Public Broadcasting Service.
  • Schiffer M. 1986. Radiocarbon dating and the “old wood” problem: the case of the Hohokam chronology. J Archaeol Sci 13: 1330.
  • Schiffer M. 1987. Formation processes of the archaeological record. Albuquerque: University of New Mexico Press.
  • Schoeninger M,DeNiro M. 1984. Nitrogen and carbon isotopic composition of bone collagen from marine and terrestrial animals. Geochim Cosmochim Acta 48: 625639.
  • Schoeninger M,DeNiro M,Tauber H. 1983. Stable nitrogen isotope ratios of bone collagen reflect marine and terrestrial components of prehistoric human diet. Science 220: 13811383.
  • Schultz M. 1994. Comparative histopathology of syphilitic lesions in prehistoric and historic human bones. In: Dutour O,Pálfi G,Berato J,Brun J-P, editors. L'origine de la syphilis en Europe: avant ou après 1493? (The origin of syphilis in Europe: before or after 1493?). Toulon, France: Editions Errance. p 6367.
  • Schultz M. 2001. Paleohistopathology of bone: a new approach to the study of ancient diseases. Am J Phys Anthropol 116( Supp 33): 106147.
  • Schultz M. 2003. Light microscope analysis in skeletal paleopathology. In: Ortner D, editor. Identification of pathological conditions in human skeletal remains. Amsterdam: Academic Press. p 73106.
  • Schultz M,Schmidt-Schultz T,Wolf M. 2003. Paläopathologische und paläobiochemische untersuchungen an ausgewählten skeletfunden aus der nekropole von Bajkara (Kasachstan). In: Parzinger H,Zajbert Y,Nagler A, editors. Der groβe kurgan von Bajkara: archäologie in Eurasien. Mainz: Verlag Philipp von Zabern. p 149194.
  • Schwarcz H,Melbye J,Katzenberg M,Knyf M. 1985. Stable isotopes in human skeletons of southern Ontario: reconstructing paleodiet. J Archaeol Sci 12: 187206.
  • Sengupta S. 1985. Musculoskeletal lesions in yaws. Clin Orthopaed Relat Res 192: 193198.
  • Sidell J,Christopher T,Bayliss A. 2007. Validating and improving archaeological phasing at St. Mary Spital, London. Radiocarbon 49: 593610.
  • Siena K. 2005. Introduction. In: Siena K, editor. Sins of the flesh: responding to sexual disease in early modern Europe. Toronto: CCRS Publications, Centre for Reformation and Renaissance Studies, Victoria University, University of Toronto. p 733.
  • Skinner M. 1994. Osseous treponemal disease: limits on our understanding. In: Dutour O,Pálfi G,Berato J,Brun J-P, editors. L'origine de la syphilis en Europe: avant ou après 1493? (The origin of syphilis in Europe: before or after 1493?). Toulon, France: Editions Errance. p 191201.
  • Steckel R. 1999. Industrialization and health in historical perspective. Cambridge, MA: National Bureau of Economic Research.
  • Steckel R,Floud R, editors. 1997. Health and welfare during industrialization. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
  • Steinbock R. 1976. Paleopathological diagnosis and interpretation. Springfield, IL: CC Thomas.
  • Stewart T. 1973. The people of America. New York: Scribner.
  • Stewart T,Spoehr A. 1967. Evidence on the palaeopathology of yaws. In: Brothwell D,Sandison A, editors. Diseases in antiquity. Springfield, IL: C. C. Thomas. p 307319.
  • Steyn M,Henneberg M. 1995. Pre-Columbian presence of treponemal disease: a possible case from Iron Age southern Africa. Curr Anthropol 36: 869873.
  • Stirland A. 1991. Pre-Columbian treponematosis in medieval Britain. Int J Osteoarchaeol 1: 3947.
  • Stirland A. 1994. Evidence for pre-Columbian treponematosis in medieval Europe. In: Dutour O,Pálfi G,Berato J,Brun J-P, editors. L'origine de la syphilis en Europe: avant ou après 1493? (The origin of syphilis in Europe: before or after 1493?). Toulon, France: Editions Errance. p 109115.
  • Stirland A. 2009. Criminals and paupers: the graveyard of St Margaret Fryebriggate in Combusto, Norwich. Norfolk: NAU Archaeology and Norfolk Historic Environment.
  • Stodder A. 1997. Subadult stress, morbidity, and longevity in late period populations on Guam, Mariana Islands. Am J Phys Anthropol 104: 363380.
  • Stokes J,Beerman H,Ingraham N. 1944. Modern clinical syphilology. Philadelphia: Saunders.
  • Stones J, editor. 1989. Three Scottish carmelite friaries: excavations at Aberdeen, Linlithgow, and Perth, 1980–86. Edinburgh: Society of Antiquaries of Scotland.
  • Sudhoff K. 1925. The earliest printed literature on syphilis: being ten tractures from the years 1495–1498. Florence: R. Lier & Co.
  • Suzuki T. 1984. Palaeopathological and palaeoepidemiological study of osseous syphilis in skulls of the Edo period. Tokyo: The University of Tokyo Press.
  • Suzuki T,Matsushita T,Han K. 2005. On the possble case of treponematosis from the Bronze Age in China. Anthropol Sci 113: 253258.
  • Taneja B. 1968. Yaws: clinical manifestations and criteria for diagnosis. Indian J Med Res 56: 100113.
  • Todd A. 1926. Syphilitic arthritis. Br J Surg 14: 260279.
  • Torgersen J. 1951. The developmental genetics and evolutionary meaning of the metopic suture. Am J Phys Anthropol 9: 193207.
  • Trembly D. 1996. Treponematosis in pre-Spanish western Micronesia. Int J Osteoarchaeol 6: 397402.
  • van der Merwe N,Lee-Thorp J,Raymond S. 1993. Light stable isotopes and the subsistence base of formative cultures at Valdivia, Ecuador. In: Lambert L,Grupe G, editors. Prehistoric human bone: archaeology at the molecular level. New York: Springer Verlag. p 6397.
  • Vasulu T. 1994. On the origin and antiquity of treponematosis: an appraisal—Asia. In: Dutour O,Pálfi G,Berato J,Brun J-P, editors. L'origine de la syphilis en Europe: avant ou après 1493? (The origin of syphilis in Europe: before or after 1493?). Toulon, France: Editions Errance. p 154156.
  • Virchow R. 1858. Über die natur der constitutionell-syphilitischen affectionen. Virchows Archiv für pathologische Anatomie und Physiologie und für klinische Medizin 15:227336.
  • Virchow R. 1896. Beiträge zur Geschichte der Lues. Dermatologische Zeitschrift 317:19.
  • von Hunnius T,Roberts C,Boylston A,Sanders S. 2006. Histological identification of syphilis in pre-Columbian England. Am J Phys Anthropol 129: 599566.
  • Wada Y,Ikeda J,Suzuki T. 1987. Probable treponematosis in human skeletons from the Himrin Basin of Iraq. J Anthropol Soc Nippon 95: 443456.
  • Waldron T. 2009. Paleopathology. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
  • Walker P. 2008. Bioarchaeological ethics: a historical perspective on the value of human remains. In: Katzenberg M,Saunders S, editors. Biological anthropology of the human skeleton. New York: Wiley-Liss. p 341.
  • Walker P,DeNiro M. 1986. Stable nitrogen and carbon isotope ratios in bone collagen as indices of prehistoric dietary dependence on marine and terrestrial resources in southern California. Am J Phys Anthropol 71: 5161.
  • Walpole I,Hockey A,Nicoll A. 1990. The Nance-Horan syndrome. J Med Genet 27: 632634.
  • Watts S. 1997. The secret plague: syphilis in west Europe and east Asia, 1492 to 1965. Epidemics and history: disease, power, and imperialism. New Haven: Yale University Press. p 122167.
  • Weaver D,Sandford M,Bogdan G,Kissling G,Powell M. 2005. Prehistoric treponematosis on the North Carolina coast. In: Powell M,Cook D, editors. The myth of syphilis: the natural history of treponematosis in North America. Gainesville, FL: University Press of Florida/Florida Museum of Natural History. p 7791.
  • Webb S. 1995. Paleopathology of Australian aboriginals: health and disease across a hunter-gatherer continent. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
  • Weber A,McKenzie H,Beukens R,Gorlunova O. 2005. Evaluation of radiocarbon dates from the Middle Holocene hunter-gatherer cemetery Khuzhir-Nuge XIV. Lake Baikal, Siberia. J Archaeol Sci 32: 14811500.
  • Weston D. 2008. Investigating the specificity of periosteal reactions in pathology museum specimens. Am J Phys Anthropol 137: 4859.
  • Weston D. 2009. Paleohistopathological analysis of pathology musueum specimens: can periosteal reaction microstructure explain lesion etiology? Am J Phys Anthropol 140: 186193.
  • White B. 2009. Personal communication: Excavation of cemeteries associated with hospitals in the United Kingdom.
  • White C,Schwarcz H. 1989. Ancient Maya diet: as inferred from isotopic and elemental analysis of human bone. J Archaeol Sci 16: 451474.
  • Willcox R. 1972. The treponemal evolution. Transactions of the St Johns Hospital Dermatological Society 58:2137.
  • Williams H. 1932. The origin and antiquity of syphilis: The evidence from diseased bones, a review, with some new material from America. Archives of Pathology 13:779814, 931–983.
  • Williams H,Rice J,Lacayo J. 1927. The American origin of syphilis, with citations from early Spanish authors collected by Dr. Montejo y Robledo. Arch Dermatol Syphilol 16: 683696.
  • WORD database. 2010. Post-medieval data downloads. Museum of London. Accessed (25/07/2010) http://www.museumoflondon.org.uk/English/Collections/OnlineResources/CHB/Resources/Post-medievaldatadownloads.htm.
  • Wrigley E,Schofield R. 1981. The population history of England, 1541–1871. London: Arnold.
  • Yakinci C,Ozcan A,Aslan T,Demirhan B. 1995. Bejel in malatya, Turkey. J Trop Pediatr 41: 117120.
  • Yoneda M,Tanaka A,Shibata Y,Morita M,Uzawa K,Hirota M,Uchida M. 2002. Radiocarbon marine reservoir effect in human remains from the Kitakogane site, Hokkaido. J Archaeol Sci 29: 529536.
  • Zhang Z. 1994. The skeletal evidence of human leprosy and syphilis in ancient China. Acta Anthropol Sin 13: 294299.
  • Zimmerman M,Kelley M. 1982. Atlas of human paleopathology. New York: Praeger.