Mitochondrial haplogroup C4c: A rare lineage entering America through the ice-free corridor?
Article first published online: 24 OCT 2011
Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
American Journal of Physical Anthropology
Volume 147, Issue 1, pages 35–39, January 2012
How to Cite
Kashani, B. H., Perego, U. A., Olivieri, A., Angerhofer, N., Gandini, F., Carossa, V., Lancioni, H., Semino, O., Woodward, S. R., Achilli, A. and Torroni, A. (2012), Mitochondrial haplogroup C4c: A rare lineage entering America through the ice-free corridor?. Am. J. Phys. Anthropol., 147: 35–39. doi: 10.1002/ajpa.21614
- Issue published online: 14 DEC 2011
- Article first published online: 24 OCT 2011
- Manuscript Accepted: 4 AUG 2011
- Manuscript Received: 13 JUN 2011
- Progetti Ricerca Interesse Nazionale 2009 (Italian Ministry of the University)
- The Sorenson Molecular Genealogy Foundation
- FIRB-Futuro in Ricerca (Italian Ministry of the University)
- Fondazione Alma Mater Ticinensis
- mitochondrial genome;
- Native Americans;
- mtDNA haplogroup C4c;
- Paleo-Indian migrations
Recent analyses of mitochondrial genomes from Native Americans have brought the overall number of recognized maternal founding lineages from just four to a current count of 15. However, because of their relative low frequency, almost nothing is known for some of these lineages. This leaves a considerable void in understanding the events that led to the colonization of the Americas following the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM). In this study, we identified and completely sequenced 14 mitochondrial DNAs belonging to one extremely rare Native American lineage known as haplogroup C4c. Its age and geographical distribution raise the possibility that C4c marked the Paleo-Indian group(s) that entered North America from Beringia through the ice-free corridor between the Laurentide and Cordilleran ice sheets. The similarities in ages andgeographical distributions for C4c and the previously analyzed X2a lineage provide support to the scenario of a dual origin for Paleo-Indians. Taking into account that C4c is deeply rooted in the Asian portion of the mtDNA phylogeny and is indubitably of Asian origin, the finding that C4c and X2a are characterized by parallel genetic histories definitively dismisses the controversial hypothesis of an Atlantic glacial entry route into North America. Am J Phys Anthropol, 2012. © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.