Barberapithecus huerzeleri gen. et sp. nov. (Primates, Pliopithecidae) is erected on the basis of material from Castell de Barberà (Middle to Late Miocene, ca. 11.2–10.5 Ma), in the Vallès-Penedès Basin (Catalonia, Spain), including: 15 teeth (representing most of the permanent dentition) from a single female individual (holotype); an isolated P/3 (paratype); and a male C1/ (referred to the hypodigm). Previously, this material had been only partially figured and described, being attributed to Pliopithecus or to a new taxon with possible crouzeliine affinities. The erection of a new genus is justified by several autapomorphic features, such as markedly buccolingually compressed and mesiodistally elongated C1/, extremely buccolingually compressed, and mesiodistally oriented C/1 main cusp, P/4 with a large trigonid subequal to the talonid, very large distal foveae on the M/1 and especially the M/2, and lower molars with a quadrangular central fovea and a mesially situated entoconid. These features are associated with a set of crouzeliine synapomorphies, such as buccolingually compressed and peripheralized cusps, well-developed crests, large and well-defined occlusal foveae, upper molars with long preprotocrista, short hypoparacrista, somewhat distally situated protocone and short distal fovea, distinct P/3 metaconid, well-developed P/4 premetacristid, and relatively narrow lower molars with a reduced entoconid. Although more primitive, Barberapithecus resembles Anapithecus in some derived features. Both taxa are included into a new tribe (Anapithecini), together with other crouzeliines except Plesiopliopithecus (tribe Crouzeliini). The retention of primitive, pliopithecine-like features in Barberapithecus suggests that anapithecins might have evolved from a Pliopithecus ancestor, so that as currently conceived the Crouzeliinae might be polyphyletic. Am J Phys Anthropol 2012. © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.