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Keywords:

  • Pliopithecidae;
  • Crouzeliinae;
  • taxonomy;
  • Miocene;
  • Iberian Peninsula

Abstract

Barberapithecus huerzeleri gen. et sp. nov. (Primates, Pliopithecidae) is erected on the basis of material from Castell de Barberà (Middle to Late Miocene, ca. 11.2–10.5 Ma), in the Vallès-Penedès Basin (Catalonia, Spain), including: 15 teeth (representing most of the permanent dentition) from a single female individual (holotype); an isolated P/3 (paratype); and a male C1/ (referred to the hypodigm). Previously, this material had been only partially figured and described, being attributed to Pliopithecus or to a new taxon with possible crouzeliine affinities. The erection of a new genus is justified by several autapomorphic features, such as markedly buccolingually compressed and mesiodistally elongated C1/, extremely buccolingually compressed, and mesiodistally oriented C/1 main cusp, P/4 with a large trigonid subequal to the talonid, very large distal foveae on the M/1 and especially the M/2, and lower molars with a quadrangular central fovea and a mesially situated entoconid. These features are associated with a set of crouzeliine synapomorphies, such as buccolingually compressed and peripheralized cusps, well-developed crests, large and well-defined occlusal foveae, upper molars with long preprotocrista, short hypoparacrista, somewhat distally situated protocone and short distal fovea, distinct P/3 metaconid, well-developed P/4 premetacristid, and relatively narrow lower molars with a reduced entoconid. Although more primitive, Barberapithecus resembles Anapithecus in some derived features. Both taxa are included into a new tribe (Anapithecini), together with other crouzeliines except Plesiopliopithecus (tribe Crouzeliini). The retention of primitive, pliopithecine-like features in Barberapithecus suggests that anapithecins might have evolved from a Pliopithecus ancestor, so that as currently conceived the Crouzeliinae might be polyphyletic. Am J Phys Anthropol 2012. © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.