Lumbar lordosis of extinct hominins
Article first published online: 3 NOV 2011
Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
American Journal of Physical Anthropology
Volume 147, Issue 1, pages 64–77, January 2012
How to Cite
Been, E., Gómez-Olivencia, A. and Kramer, P. A. (2012), Lumbar lordosis of extinct hominins. Am. J. Phys. Anthropol., 147: 64–77. doi: 10.1002/ajpa.21633
- Issue published online: 14 DEC 2011
- Article first published online: 3 NOV 2011
- Manuscript Accepted: 15 SEP 2011
- Manuscript Received: 26 SEP 2010
- Ministerio of Educación (Programa Nacional de Movilidad de Recursos Humanos del Plan Nacional de I+D+I 2008-2011)
- Ministerio de Ciencia e Innovación (Proyecto). Grant Number: CGL2009-12703-C03-03
- European Community Research Infrastructure Action (SYNTHESYS Project; ; FP6 “Structuring the European Research Area” Programme) [http://www.synthesys.info/]
- fossil H. sapiens
The lordotic curvature of the lumbar spine (lumbar lordosis) in humans is a critical component in the ability to achieve upright posture and bipedal gait. Only general estimates of the lordotic angle (LA) of extinct hominins are currently available, most of which are based on the wedging of the vertebral bodies. Recently, a new method for calculating the LA in skeletal material has become available. This method is based on the relationship between the lordotic curvature and the orientation of the inferior articular processes relative to vertebral bodies in the lumbar spines of living primates. Using this relationship, we developed new regression models in order to calculate the LAs in hominins. The new models are based on primate group-means and were used to calculate the LAs in the spines of eight extinct hominins. The results were also compared with the LAs of modern humans and modern nonhuman apes. The lordotic angles of australopithecines (41° ± 4), H. erectus (45°) and fossil H. sapiens (54° ± 14) are similar to those of modern humans (51° ± 11). This analysis confirms the assumption that human-like lordotic curvature was a morphological change that took place during the acquisition of erect posture and bipedalism as the habitual form of locomotion. Neandertals have smaller lordotic angles (LA = 29° ± 4) than modern humans, but higher angles than nonhuman apes (22° ± 3). This suggests possible subtle differences in Neandertal posture and locomotion from that of modern humans. Am J Phys Anthropol, 2012. © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.