I am grateful to the Biological Anthropology Section of the American Anthropological Association for the opportunity to present these ideas as the Distinguished Lecture for 2011. Some portions of this paper overlap material already published (Marks, 2010, 2012). I thank reviewers and colleagues for their comments, Dr. George Whitney for archival materials on eugenics, and the Max Planck Institute for the History of Science for their support.
Why be against darwin? Creationism, racism, and the roots of anthropology†
Article first published online: 2 NOV 2012
Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
American Journal of Physical Anthropology
Supplement: Yearbook of Physical Anthropology
Volume 149, Issue Supplement 55, pages 95–104, 2012
How to Cite
Marks, J. (2012), Why be against darwin? Creationism, racism, and the roots of anthropology. Am. J. Phys. Anthropol., 149: 95–104. doi: 10.1002/ajpa.22163
- Issue published online: 12 NOV 2012
- Article first published online: 2 NOV 2012
- Manuscript Accepted: 7 SEP 2012
- Manuscript Received: 6 SEP 2012
- Scientific racism;
In this work, I review recent works in science studies and the history of science of relevance to biological anthropology. I will look at two rhetorical practices in human evolution—overstating our relationship with the apes and privileging ancestry over emergence—and their effects upon how human evolution and human diversity have been understood scientifically. I examine specifically the intellectual conflicts between Rudolf Virchow and Ernst Haeckel in the 19th century and G. G. Simpson and Morris Goodman a century later. This will expose some previously concealed elements of the tangled histories of anthropology, genetics, and evolution—particularly in relation to the general roles of race and heredity in conceptualizing human origins. I argue that scientific racism and unscientific creationism are both threats to the scholarly enterprise, but that scientific racism is worse. Am J Phys Anthropol, 2012. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.