The Himalayas: Barrier and conduit for gene flow

Authors

  • Tenzin Gayden,

    1. Department of Molecular and Human Genetics, College of Medicine, Florida International University, Miami, FL
    2. Department of Biological Sciences, Florida International University, Miami, FL
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  • Annabel Perez,

    1. Department of Molecular and Human Genetics, College of Medicine, Florida International University, Miami, FL
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  • Patrice J. Persad,

    1. Department of Molecular and Human Genetics, College of Medicine, Florida International University, Miami, FL
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  • Areej Bukhari,

    1. Department of Molecular and Human Genetics, College of Medicine, Florida International University, Miami, FL
    2. Department of Biological Sciences, Florida International University, Miami, FL
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  • Shilpa Chennakrishnaiah,

    1. Department of Molecular and Human Genetics, College of Medicine, Florida International University, Miami, FL
    2. Department of Biological Sciences, Florida International University, Miami, FL
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  • Tanya Simms,

    1. Department of Molecular and Human Genetics, College of Medicine, Florida International University, Miami, FL
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  • Trisha Maloney,

    1. Department of Molecular and Human Genetics, College of Medicine, Florida International University, Miami, FL
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  • Kristina Rodriguez,

    1. Department of Molecular and Human Genetics, College of Medicine, Florida International University, Miami, FL
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  • Rene J. Herrera

    Corresponding author
    1. Department of Biological Sciences, Florida International University, Miami, FL
    • Department of Molecular and Human Genetics, College of Medicine, Florida International University, Miami, FL
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Correspondence to: Dr. Rene J. Herrera, Department of Molecular and Human Genetics, College of Medicine, Florida International University, University Park, OE 304, Miami, FL 33199, USA. E-mail: herrerar@fiu.edu

ABSTRACT

The Himalayan mountain range is strategically located at the crossroads of the major cultural centers in Asia, the Middle East and Europe. Although previous Y-chromosome studies indicate that the Himalayas served as a natural barrier for gene flow from the south to the Tibetan plateau, this region is believed to have played an important role as a corridor for human migrations between East and West Eurasia along the ancient Silk Road. To evaluate the effects of the Himalayan mountain range in shaping the maternal lineages of populations residing on either side of the cordillera, we analyzed mitochondrial DNA variation in 344 samples from three Nepalese collections (Newar, Kathmandu and Tamang) and a general population of Tibet. Our results revealed a predominantly East Asian-specific component in Tibet and Tamang, whereas Newar and Kathmandu are both characterized by a combination of East and South Central Asian lineages. Interestingly, Newar and Kathmandu harbor several deep-rooted Indian lineages, including M2, R5, and U2, whose coalescent times from this study (U2, >40 kya) and previous reports (M2 and R5, >50 kya) suggest that Nepal was inhabited during the initial peopling of South Central Asia. Comparisons with our previous Y-chromosome data indicate sex-biased migrations in Tamang and a founder effect and/or genetic drift in Tamang and Newar. Altogether, our results confirm that while the Himalayas acted as a geographic barrier for human movement from the Indian subcontinent to the Tibetan highland, it also served as a conduit for gene flow between Central and East Asia. Am J Phys Anthropol 151:169–182, 2013. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

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