Maternal admixture and population structure in Mexican–Mestizos based on mtDNA haplogroups

Authors

  • Gabriela Martínez-Cortés,

    1. Instituto de Investigación en Genética Molecular, Centro Universitario de la Ciénega, Universidad de Guadalajara (CUCiénega-UdeG), Ocotlán, Jalisco, México
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  • Joel Salazar-Flores,

    1. Instituto de Investigación en Genética Molecular, Centro Universitario de la Ciénega, Universidad de Guadalajara (CUCiénega-UdeG), Ocotlán, Jalisco, México
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  • Javier Haro-Guerrero,

    1. Instituto de Investigación en Genética Molecular, Centro Universitario de la Ciénega, Universidad de Guadalajara (CUCiénega-UdeG), Ocotlán, Jalisco, México
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  • Rodrigo Rubi-Castellanos,

    1. Instituto de Investigación en Genética Molecular, Centro Universitario de la Ciénega, Universidad de Guadalajara (CUCiénega-UdeG), Ocotlán, Jalisco, México
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  • Jésus S. Velarde-Félix,

    1. Unidad Académica de la Escuela de Biología, Universidad Autónoma de Sinaloa, Culiacán, Sinaloa
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  • José F. Muñoz-Valle,

    1. Grupo de Inmunogenética Funcional, Departamento de Biología Molecular y Genómica, Centro Universitario de Ciencias de la Salud, Universidad de Guadalajara, Guadalajara, Jalisco, México
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  • Mavil López-Casamichana,

    1. Posgrado en Ciencias Genómicas, Universidad Autónoma de la Ciudad de México, México, D.F., México
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  • Eduardo Carrillo-Tapia,

    1. Posgrado en Ciencias Genómicas, Universidad Autónoma de la Ciudad de México, México, D.F., México
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  • Luis M. Canseco-Avila,

    1. Laboratorio de Investigación, Hospital Regional de Alta Especialidad, Ciudad Salud, Tapachula, Chiapas, México
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  • Claudio M. Bravi,

    1. Laboratorio de Genética Molecular Poblacional, Instituto Multidisciplinario de Biología Celular, La Plata, Argentina
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  • Mauro López-Armenta,

    1. Posgrado en Ciencias Genómicas, Universidad Autónoma de la Ciudad de México, México, D.F., México
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  • Héctor Rangel-Villalobos

    Corresponding author
    • Instituto de Investigación en Genética Molecular, Centro Universitario de la Ciénega, Universidad de Guadalajara (CUCiénega-UdeG), Ocotlán, Jalisco, México
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Correspondence to: Héctor Rangel Villalobos, Instituto de Investigación en Genética Molecular, Universidad de Guadalajara, Av. Universidad #1115, Col. LindaVista, Ocotlán, Jalisco, México, CP 47810, Mexico. E-mail: hrangel13@hotmail.com

ABSTRACT

The maternal ancestry (mtDNA) has important applications in different research fields, such as evolution, epidemiology, identification, and human population history. This is particularly interesting in Mestizos, which constitute the main population in Mexico (∼93%) resulting from post-Columbian admixture between Spaniards, Amerindians, and African slaves, principally. Consequently, we conducted minisequencing analysis (SNaPshot) of 11 mitochondrial single-nucleotide polymorphisms in 742 Mestizos of 10 populations from different regions in Mexico. The predominant maternal ancestry was Native American (92.9%), including Haplogroups A, B, C, and D (47, 23.7, 15.9, and 6.2%, respectively). Conversely, European and African ancestries were less frequent (5.3 and 1.9%, respectively). The main characteristics of the maternal lineages observed in Mexican–Mestizos comprised the following: 1) contrasting geographic gradient of Haplogroups A and C; 2) increase of European lineages toward the Northwest; 3) low or absent, but homogeneous, African ancestry throughout the Mexican territory; 4) maternal lineages in Mestizos roughly represent the genetic makeup of the surrounding Amerindian groups, particularly toward the Southeast, but not in the North and West; 5) continuity over time of the geographic distribution of Amerindian lineages in Mayas; and 6) low but significant maternal population structure (FST = 2.8%; P = 0.0000). The average ancestry obtained from uniparental systems (mtDNA and Y-chromosome) in Mexican–Mestizos was correlated with previous ancestry estimates based on autosomal systems (genome-wide single-nucleotide polymorphisms and short tandem repeats). Finally, the comparison of paternal and maternal lineages provided additional information concerning the gender bias admixture, mating patterns, and population structure in Mestizos throughout the Mexican territory. Am J Phys Anthropol 151:526–537, 2013. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

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