Evidence for long-term migration on the Balkan Peninsula using dental and cranial nonmetric data: Early interaction between Corinth (Greece) and its colony at Apollonia (Albania)

Authors

  • Britney Kyle McIlvaine,

    Corresponding author
    1. Department of Anthropology, University of Northern Colorado, Greeley, CO
    • Correspondence to: Britney Kyle McIlvaine, University of Northern Colorado, 2200 Candelaria Hall, Campus Box 90, Greeley, CO 80639, USA. E-mail: britney.mcilvaine@unco.edu

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  • Lynne A. Schepartz,

    1. School of Anatomical Sciences, University of the Witwatersrand, Faculty of Health Sciences, Parktown, Johannesburg, South Africa
    2. University of Pennsylvania Museum of Archaeology and Anthropology, Philadelphia, PA
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  • Clark Spencer Larsen,

    1. Department of Anthropology, The Ohio State University, 4034 Smith Laboratory, Columbus, OH
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  • Paul W. Sciulli

    1. Department of Anthropology, The Ohio State University, 4034 Smith Laboratory, Columbus, OH
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ABSTRACT

This article seeks to identify “Greeks” and “non-Greeks” in “mixed” mortuary contexts in a Greek colony. Specifically, we test the hypothesis that Illyrian and Greek individuals lived and were buried together at the Corinthian colony of Apollonia, Albania (established ca. 600 BC). The pattern of human biological interaction at Apollonia is tested by identifying variation in genetic relatedness using biodistance analysis of dental and cranial nonmetric traits for three sites: Apollonia (n = 116), its founder-city Corinth (n = 69), and Lofkënd (n = 108), an inland site near Apollonia pre-dating colonization. Logistic regression analysis estimates that individuals from colonial Apollonia are most closely related to prehistoric Illyrian populations (from Lofkënd and prehistoric Apollonia), rather than Greeks (from Corinth). The phenotypic similarity between colonial Apollonia and prehistoric Illyria suggests that there was a large Illyrian contribution to the gene pool at the colony of Apollonia. However, some trait combinations show low biological distances among all groups, suggesting homogeneity among Illyrian and Greek populations (assessed through pseudo-Mahalanobis' D2). The degree of phenotypic similarity suggests shared ancestry and long-term migration throughout these regions. The impacts of missing data and small sample sizes are also considered. Am J Phys Anthropol 153:236–248, 2014. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

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