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C4-consumers in southern europe: The case of friuli V.G. (NE-Italy) during early and central middle ages


  • Roman farm.

  • Honorific title of the archbishops of Aquileia. In time, they were the metropolitans of an extensive territory and representatives of Roman civilization among the Langobards.

  • Hereafter, the isotopic parameter δ is defined according to the IUPAC rules, that is: δ = (R/Rst) − 1, where R and Rst are the isotope ratios in the sample and in the standard, respectively.

  • Ambrose and Norr (1993), seven data; Tieszen and Fagre (1993), eight data; Jim et al. (2004), six data; Passey et al. (2005), an average of two δ13C‰ enamel values minus 2.4‰: see text.

  • Cerling and Harris (1999), 13 data; Balasse (2002), two average values; Passey et al. (2005), two avarage data.

  • Cerling and Harris (1999); four data.

  • Howland et al. (2003); six data; Passey et al. (2005), an average of two δ13C‰ enamel values minus 2.2‰; Warinner and Tuross (2009), two average data.


Isotope variations were studied in necropolises of the early (6th to 7th century CE) and central (10th to 11th century CE) medieval period located in Fruili-Venezia Giulia (Northeastern Italy). The two periods each shortly followed two great barbarian invasions that changed the politics and economy of Italy: the arrivals of Langobards in 578 CE and the Hungarian incursions from the end of the 9th to the first half of the 10th century. These events had a tragic effect on the economy of Friuli-Venezia Giulia: severe depopulation and the partial abandonment of the countryside with fall of agricultural production. Am J Phys Anthropol 154:561–574, 2014. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.