Using microarray technology, we investigated whether the gene expression profile in white blood cells could be used as a fingerprint of different disease states. Adult rats were subjected to ischemic strokes, hemorrhagic strokes, sham surgeries, kainate-induced seizures, hypoxia, or insulin-induced hypoglycemia, and compared with controls. The white blood cell RNA expression patterns were assessed 24 hours later using oligonucleotide microarrays. Results showed that many genes were upregulated or downregulated at least twofold in white blood cells after each experimental condition. Blood genomic response patterns were different for each condition. These results demonstrate the potential of blood gene expression profiling for diagnostic, mechanistic, and therapeutic assessment of a wide variety of disease states.